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b  search
b value  search
USEb-values
B-11/B-10  search
BTisotopes
 .stable isotopes
 ..B-11/B-10
BTboron
 .B-11/B-10
RTisotope ratios
SNThis term has multiple hierarchies.
b-values  search
UFb value
RTseismology
 earthquakes
 physical properties
 experimental studies
 shock waves
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1989.
Ba  search
USEbarium
Babadag Lake basin  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Romania
 ...Babadag Lake basin
RTRomanian Dobruja
SNN Dobruja.
babingtonite  search
BTsilicates
 .chain silicates
 ..babingtonite
Babor Range  search
BTAfrica
 .North Africa
 ..Algeria
 ...Babor Range
UFBabors
RTAtlas Mountains
SNCoastal range of the Little Atlas Mountains in N Algeria. Also search Babor.
Babors  search
USEBabor Range
Baca County Colorado  search
BTUnited States
 .Colorado
 ..Baca County Colorado
Baca Field  search
BTUnited States
 .New Mexico
 ..Sandoval County New Mexico
 ...Baca Field
UFBaca geothermal field
RTgeothermal fields
 Valles Caldera
SNGeothermal field in Valles Caldera, N New Mexico. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Baca Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Paleogene
 ....Eocene
 .....Baca Formation
RTNew Mexico
SNCentral New Mexico. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Baca geothermal field  search
USEBaca Field
Bacau Romania  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Romania
 ...Bacau Romania
BTEurope
 .Moldavia
 ..Bacau Romania
RTBicaz Valley
SNCity and county in E central Romania. This term has multiple hierarchies.
back-arc basin  search
back-arc basins  search
BTbasins
 .back-arc basins
RTorogeny
 tectonics
 plate tectonics
 continental margin
 subduction zones
 island arcs
 fore-arc basins
 forelands
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1985.
back-scattering  search
USEbackscattering
backfill  search
RTmining geology
 materials
 engineering geology
 construction
 cut-and-fill mining
 soil-structure interface
SNUsed for mining and construction. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
background level  search
RTpollution
 geochemistry
 isotopes
 air
 background radiation
 baseline studies
 detection
 detection limit
 geochemical surveys
 levels
SNGeneral term. Also see background radiation. Before 1993, also search geochemical background if applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
background radiation  search
RTbackground level
 radioactive isotopes
 radioactive waste
 levels
 dosimetry
SNBefore 1993, also search background in combination with radioactive isotopes or radioactive waste. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
backscattering  search
UFback-scattering
RTspectroscopy
 acoustical methods
 geophysical methods
 waves
 geophysics
 seismic methods
 distortion
 attenuation
 wave dispersion
 infrared methods
 electromagnetic waves
 multiple reflections
 optical dispersion
 radar methods
 reflection
 X-ray analysis
SNGeneral. Used with many types of radiant energy. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.
Backus-Gilbert analysis  search
RTseismology
 analysis
Bacon County Georgia  search
BTUnited States
 .Georgia
 ..Bacon County Georgia
bacteria  search
NTcoliform bacteria
 Pseudomonas
 Thiobacillus ferrooxidans
UFschizomycetes
RTmicrofossils
 soils
 fungi
 microorganisms
 Protista
 thallophytes
 biology
 biota
 parasites
 prokaryotes
 thermophilic taxa
SNBefore 1998, thallophytes was a broader term. Includes schizomycetes. For paleontologic studies, index microfossils.
Bactritida  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Mollusca
 ..Cephalopoda
 ...Tetrabranchiata
 ....Ammonoidea
 .....Bactritida
RTNautiloidea
SNSometimes classified under Nautiloidea, or as a separate order.
Baculites  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Mollusca
 ..Cephalopoda
 ...Tetrabranchiata
 ....Ammonoidea
 .....Baculites
SNGenus.
Bad Deutsch Altenburg Austria  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Austria
 ...Lower Austria
 ....Bad Deutsch Altenburg Austria
SNVillage on the Danube in E Lower Austria.
Bad Gastein Austria  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Austria
 ...Salzburg State Austria
 ....Bad Gastein Austria
SNTown in W central Austria.
Bad Pyrmont Germany  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Germany
 ...Lower Saxony Germany
 ....Bad Pyrmont Germany
SNTown in S Lower Saxony, central Germany.
Badajoz City Spain  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Iberian Peninsula
 ...Spain
 ....Extremadura Spain
 .....Badajoz Spain
 ......Badajoz City Spain
SNRefers to only the city in W Spain. Before 1981, also search Badajoz Spain.
Badajoz Spain  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Iberian Peninsula
 ...Spain
 ....Extremadura Spain
 .....Badajoz Spain
NTBadajoz City Spain
SNRefers only to the province in W Spain on Portuguese border. Before 1993, also search Badajoz Province and Spain. For the city, see Badajoz City Spain.
Badakhshan  search
BTAsia
 .Tajikistan
 ..Badakhshan
RTAfghanistan
 Shugnan Tajikistan
SNPart of Gorno-Badakshan Autonomous Oblast in Tajikistan. Before 1993, also used for frontier province in NE Afghanistan. After 1992, use Badakhshan Afghanistan for the province. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Badakhshan Afghanistan  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..Afghanistan
 ...Badakhshan Afghanistan
RTTajikistan
SNFrontier province in NE Afghanistan.
Badami Series  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Precambrian
 ..Proterozoic
 ...Badami Series
RTIndia
 Karnataka India
SNThe Badami Series lies over the Kaladgi Series and is overlain by thick cover of Deccan Traps. Belgaum District in SW part of India.
baddeleyite  search
BToxides
 .baddeleyite
RTceramic materials
Baden  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Germany
 ...Baden-Wurttemberg Germany
 ....Baden
SNFormer German state.
Baden-Baden Germany  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Germany
 ...Baden-Wurttemberg Germany
 ....Baden-Baden Germany
SNCity, Baden-Wurttemberg, SW Germany. Before 1978, also search Baden.
Baden-Wuerttemberg Germany  search
USEBaden-Wurttemberg Germany
Baden-Wurttemberg Germany  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Germany
 ...Baden-Wurttemberg Germany
NTBaden
 Baden-Baden Germany
 Freiburg Germany
 Hegau
 Heidelberg Germany
 Holzmaden region
 Kaiserstuhl
 Karlsruhe Germany
 Katzenbuckel
 Neckar River
 Stuttgart Germany
 Swabian Alb
 Urach Germany
 Weinheim Germany
 Wurttemberg
 Wutach Valley
UFBaden-Wuerttemberg Germany
RTAlpenvorland
 Black Forest
 Clara Mine
 Franconia
 Lake Constance
 Main River
 Odenwald
 Palatinate
 Swabia
 Upper Rhine Valley
SNState in SW Germany.
Badenian  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Neogene
 ....Miocene
 .....Badenian
NTlower Badenian
RTlower Miocene
 middle Miocene
SNProvincial series, Europe.
Badkhyz  search
BTAsia
 .Turkmenia
 ..Badkhyz
SNSteppe region in extreme S Turkmenia near Afghan and Iranian borders. This term has multiple hierarchies.
badlands  search
BTerosion features
 .badlands
RTgeomorphology
SNGeneric term for a type of topography.
Badlands National Monument  search
USEBadlands National Park
Badlands National Park  search
BTUnited States
 .South Dakota
 ..Badlands National Park
UFBadlands National Monument
RTnational parks
 Jackson County South Dakota
 national monuments
 Pennington County South Dakota
 Shannon County South Dakota
SNSW South Dakota. Also search Badlands National Monument; Badlands AND South Dakota. Indexed with counties as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.
Baffin Bay  search
RTTexas
 Arctic Ocean
 Atlantic Ocean
 Northwest Territories
 Davis Strait
 Leg 105
 ODP Site 645
 Kenedy County Texas
 Kleberg County Texas
 Laguna Madre
 Nares Strait
SNPart of Arctic Ocean between Greenland and Baffin Island; also an inlet of Laguna Madre, S Texas. Indexed with Arctic Ocean or Texas and counties as applicable.
Baffin Island  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Baffin Island
BTCanada
 .Northwest Territories
 ..Franklin District Northwest Territories
 ...Baffin Island
NTBarnes ice cap
 Cape Dyer
 Narpaing Fjord
RTArctic Archipelago
 Cumberland Peninsula
 Frobisher Bay
 Hudson Strait
 Keewatin District Northwest Territories
SNLargest and most easterly island of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in Franklin District. This term has multiple hierarchies.
bafflestone  search
BTsedimentary rocks
 .carbonate rocks
 ..boundstone
 ...bafflestone
RTbioherms
 reefs
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1995.
Bagalkot India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Karnataka India
 ....Bagalkot India
SNTown in NW Karnataka, S India.
Bagh Beds  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Upper Cretaceous
 .....Bagh Beds
RTIndia
 Gujarat India
 Madhya Pradesh India
SNIncludes Nimar Sandstone, Nodular Limestone, Deola Marl, Coralline Limestone.
Bagot County Quebec  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Quebec
 ...Bagot County Quebec
Bahama Islands  search
USEBahamas
Bahama Platform  search
USEBlake Plateau
Bahamas  search
BTCaribbean region
 .West Indies
 ..Bahamas
NTBimini
UFBahama Islands
RTAndros Island
 Black Rock
 DSDP Site 5
 DSDP Site 98
 Exuma Sound
 Great Bahama Bank
 Leg 101
 Leg 11
 Little Bahama Bank
 Northeast Providence Channel
 Northwest Providence Channel
 ODP Site 631
 ODP Site 632
 ODP Site 633
 ODP Site 634
 ODP Site 635
 ODP Site 636
 San S
SNA chain of islands SE of Florida and N of Cuba.
Bahariya Oasis  search
BTAfrica
 .North Africa
 ..Egypt
 ...Bahariya Oasis
RTLibyan Desert
SNIn the Libyan Desert in W Egypt.
Bahia Brazil  search
BTSouth America
 .Brazil
 ..Bahia Brazil
NTBoquira Mine
 Curaca River basin
 Reconcavo Basin
 Salvador Brazil
 Tucano Basin
 Uaua Brazil
RTSao Francisco Basin
 Barreiras Formation
 Brazilian Shield
 Sao Francisco Craton
 Serra do Espinhaco
SNState in E Brazil.
Bahrain  search
BTAsia
 .Arabian Peninsula
 ..Bahrain
UFBahrein
RTKhuff Formation
SNAn archipelago in the W Persian Gulf.
Bahrein  search
USEBahrain
Bai  search
Baia Mare Romania  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Romania
 ...Transylvania
 ....Maramures Romania
 .....Baia Mare Romania
UFBaia-Mare Romania
SNTown in Maramures County in N Transylvania.
Baia-Mare Romania  search
USEBaia Mare Romania
Baie of Islands Ophiolite  search
USEBay of Islands Ophiolite
Baie Verte Peninsula  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Newfoundland
 ...Newfoundland Island
 ....Baie Verte Peninsula
SNN Newfoundland, between White Bay and Notre Dame Bay. For the town, use Baie Verte Newfoundland. Also search Baie Verte and Newfoundland.
Baikal (Lake)  search
USELake Baikal
Baikal Mountains  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Russian Federation
 ..Baikal Mountains
BTAsia
 .Baikal Mountains
RTIrkutsk Russian Federation
 Buryat Russian Federation
SNWest shore of Lake Baikal mostly in Irkutsk Oblast. Also search Baikal. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Baikal region  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Russian Federation
 ..Baikal region
BTAsia
 .Siberian fold belt
 ..Baikal region
RTBaikal-Amur Railroad region
 Transbaikalia
 Irkutsk Russian Federation
 Buryat Russian Federation
 Chaya Massif
 Lake Baikal
SNLake Baikal, Baikal Mountains, NE Irkutsk Oblast, and N Buryat Autonomous Republic. Also search Baikal. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Baikal rift zone  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Russian Federation
 ..Baikal rift zone
BTAsia
 .Baikal rift zone
RTIrkutsk Russian Federation
 Buryat Russian Federation
 Lake Baikal
 Siberia
SNS central Siberia. This term has multiple hierarchies. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
Baikal-Amur Railroad region  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Russian Federation
 ..Baikal-Amur Railroad region
BTAsia
 .Baikal-Amur Railroad region
RTAmur region
 Russian Far East
 Buryat Russian Federation
 Baikal region
 Chita Russian Federation
SNSE Russian Federation, from Lake Baikal to the Pacific. This term has multiple hierarchies. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Baikalian Orogeny  search
USEBaikalian Phase
Baikalian Phase  search
UFBaikalian Orogeny
RTPrecambrian
 Cambrian
 Russian Federation
 orogeny
 Siberia
SNWidely used throughout the Russian Federation for orogeny occurring during the Precambrian and Cambrian. Named after Lake Baikal in Siberia. Before 1978, search Baikalian AND orogeny. Indexed with ages as applicable.
Bailey County Texas  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Bailey County Texas
Bainbridge Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Silurian
 ....Middle Silurian
 .....Niagaran
 ......Bainbridge Formation
RTMissouri
 Illinois
SNCharacterized by two lithologically well-differentiated formations, Saint Clair below, and Moccasin Springs above. SW Illinois and E Missouri.
Bairdia  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Arthropoda
 ..Mandibulata
 ...Crustacea
 ....Ostracoda
 .....Podocopida
 ......Bairdiomorpha
 .......Bairdiacea
 ........Bairdiidae
 .........Bairdia
RTmicrofossils
SNGenus. Indexed with microfossils if applicable.
Bairdiacea  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Arthropoda
 ..Mandibulata
 ...Crustacea
 ....Ostracoda
 .....Podocopida
 ......Bairdiomorpha
 .......Bairdiacea
NTBairdiidae
RTmicrofossils
SNIndexed with microfossils if applicable.
Bairdiidae  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Arthropoda
 ..Mandibulata
 ...Crustacea
 ....Ostracoda
 .....Podocopida
 ......Bairdiomorpha
 .......Bairdiacea
 ........Bairdiidae
NTBairdia
RTmicrofossils
SNIndexed with microfossils if applicable.
Bairdiomorpha  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Arthropoda
 ..Mandibulata
 ...Crustacea
 ....Ostracoda
 .....Podocopida
 ......Bairdiomorpha
NTBairdiacea
RTmicrofossils
SNIncludes Bairdiacea. Indexed with microfossils if applicable.
Baita Romania  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Romania
 ...Transylvania
 ....Maramures Romania
 .....Baita Romania
SNVillage in Maramures County, NW Romania.
Baixo Alentejo  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Iberian Peninsula
 ...Portugal
 ....Baixo Alentejo
SNA region in S Portugal.
Baja California  search
BTMexico
 .Baja California
RTAgua Blanca Fault
 Alisitos Formation
 Baja California Norte Mexico
 Baja California Sur Mexico
 Cerro Prieto
 Cerro Prieto Fault
 Imperial Valley
 Mexicali Valley
 Ojo de Liebre Lagoon
 Peninsular Ranges Batholith
 Rosario Formation
 Sierra de Juarez
 Todos Santos B
SNA peninsula. Northern half is state of Baja California, formerly Baja California Norte. Southern half is the state of Baja California Sur.
Baja California Norte Mexico  search
BTMexico
 .Baja California Norte Mexico
NTCerro Prieto
 Mexicali Mexico
 Ojo de Liebre Lagoon
 Todos Santos Bay
RTBaja California
 Colorado River
 Peninsular Ranges Batholith
 Sierra de Juarez
 Colorado River delta
 Santa Susana Formation
SNUsed for the Mexican state in the northern part of the peninsula.
Baja California Sur Mexico  search
BTMexico
 .Baja California Sur Mexico
NTVizcaino Peninsula
RTBaja California
 San Gregorio Formation
SNUsed for the Mexican state in the southern part of the peninsula of Baja California.
Bajocian  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Jurassic
 ....Middle Jurassic
 .....Bajocian
NTBrent Group
 Broom Formation
 Etive Formation
 Ness Formation
 Rannoch Formation
 Tarbert Formation
RTDogger
 Garn Formation
SNEurope.
Bakal Russian Federation  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Russian Federation
 ..Chelyabinsk Russian Federation
 ...Bakal Russian Federation
RTSouthern Urals
SNCity in Chelyabinsk Oblast in Southern Urals. Before 1993, Bakal Russian Republic was also used.
Baker County Florida  search
BTUnited States
 .Florida
 ..Baker County Florida
RTOkefenokee Swamp
SNN Florida.
Baker County Georgia  search
BTUnited States
 .Georgia
 ..Baker County Georgia
SNSW Georgia.
Baker County Oregon  search
BTUnited States
 .Oregon
 ..Baker County Oregon
RTWallowa Mountains
SNOn Powder River in NE Oregon.
Baker Lake  search
RTKeewatin District Northwest Territories
SNLake in E central Keewatin District. As of 1993, use Baker Lake Northwest Territories for the town at W end of the lake. Indexed with Keewatin District Northwest Territories or region as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Bakersfield California  search
BTUnited States
 .California
 ..Kern County California
 ...Bakersfield California
SNCity in S central California.
Bakhchisarai Ukraine  search
BTEurope
 .Ukraine
 ..Crimea Ukraine
 ...Bakhchisarai Ukraine
UFBakhchisaray Ukraine
SNTown in S Crimea. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Bakhchisaray Ukraine  search
USEBakhchisarai Ukraine
Bakhmut Ukraine  search
USEArtemovsk Ukraine
Bakhtiari Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Neogene
 ....Pliocene
 .....Bakhtiari Formation
RTIran
 Iraq
SNComprises Upper and Lower Bakhtiari Formations.
Bakken Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...upper Paleozoic
 ....Bakken Formation
RTUpper Devonian
 Saskatchewan
 Montana
 North Dakota
 Manitoba
 Lower Mississippian
SNUpper Devonian? and Lower Mississippian. North Dakota, Montana, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Indexed with ages as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Bakony Mountains  search
BTngary
 .Bakony Mountains
UFTransdanubian Central Mountains
SNIn NW central Hungary. Also search Bakony.
Baku Archipelago  search
BTEurope
 .Azerbaijan
 ..Baku Archipelago
SNThis term has multiple hierarchies.
Baku Azerbaijan  search
BTEurope
 .Azerbaijan
 ..Baku Azerbaijan
SNCity on Apsheron Peninsula on Caspian Sea. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Bala  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Ordovician
 ....Bala
RTMiddle Ordovician
 Upper Ordovician
 Hirnantian
 Wales
 Merionethshire Wales
 Ashgillian
 Caradocian
SNEngland: Middle and Upper Ordovician. Comprises the Caradocian and Ashgillian. Before 1993, this term and Bala District were also used to refer to a Welsh town and to various other locations.
Balaghat India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Madhya Pradesh India
 ....Balaghat India
SNTown and district in central Madhya Pradesh, central India.
Balaklala Rhyolite  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Devonian
 ....Middle Devonian
 .....Balaklala Rhyolite
RTCalifornia
 Copley Greenstone
SNN California. Overlies Copley Greenstone and interfingers with it in some areas. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
balance, mass  search
USEmass balance
balance, water  search
USEwater balance
balanced cross sections  search
BTcross sections
 .balanced cross sections
RTtectonics
 reconstruction
SNCross section as defined by D. Elliott (1983) which is consistent with observed structures in an area and of which it can be demonstrated that it can be restored to an unstrained state. Before 1995, also search balanced sections, and balanced cross-sectio
Balasore India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Orissa India
 ....Balasore India
SNTown and district on Bay of Bengal in NE Orissa.
Balaton (Lake)  search
USELake Balaton
Balaton region  search
BTngary
 .Balaton region
RTLake Balaton
SNArea around Lake Balaton in W Hungary. Also search Balaton.
Balcanoona Australia  search
BTAustralasia
 .Australia
 ..South Australia
 ...Balcanoona Australia
SNVillage in E South Australia.
Balcones Escarpment  search
USEBalcones fault zone
Balcones fault zone  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Balcones fault zone
UFBalcones Escarpment
 Balcones-Ouachita Trend
 Ouachita-Balcones Trend
SNCentral Texas. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Balcones-Ouachita Trend  search
USEBalcones fault zone
Bald Mountain  search
RTIdaho
 Utah
 Wyoming
 Colorado
 South Dakota
 Oregon
SNName of peaks which occur in several states: central Colorado; central and SW central Idaho; E central Oregon; W South Dakota; NE Utah; N Wyoming and W central Wyoming. Indexed with states and counties as applicable.
Baldwin County Alabama  search
BTUnited States
 .Alabama
 ..Baldwin County Alabama
SNOn Mobile Bay and Gulf of Mexico in SW Alabama.
Baldwin County Georgia  search
BTUnited States
 .Georgia
 ..Baldwin County Georgia
SNCentral Georgia.
Balearic abyssal plain  search
USEBalearic Basin
Balearic Basin  search
BTMediterranean Sea
 .West Mediterranean
 ..Balearic Basin
UFAlgerian Plain
 Balearic abyssal plain
RTLeg 13
 DSDP Site 124
 DSDP Site 133
 DSDP Site 134
 DSDP Site 372
 Leg 42A
SNBetween Balearic Islands and Sardinia.
Balearic Islands  search
BTMediterranean region
 .Balearic Islands
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Iberian Peninsula
 ...Spain
 ....Balearic Islands
NTIbiza
 Majorca
 Minorca
RTMediterranean Sea
SNOff E coast of Spain. Forms Spanish province of Baleares. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Balei Russian Federation  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Russian Federation
 ..Chita Russian Federation
 ...Balei Russian Federation
UFBaley Russian Federation
SNCity in S central Chita Oblast E of Lake Baikal. Before 1993, Balei Russian Republic was also used. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Baley Russian Federation  search
USEBalei Russian Federation
Bali  search
BTAsia
 .Far East
 ..Indonesia
 ...Bali
BTAsia
 .Far East
 ..Lesser Sunda Islands
 ...Bali
NTMount Agung
SNIsland off E end of Java. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Balkan Foreland  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Bulgaria
 ...Balkan Foreland
SNA stable area marginal to the Balkan Mountains of central Bulgaria.
Balkan Mountains  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Balkan Mountains
UFStara Planina
RTSerbia
 Bulgaria
SNExtends from Timok River of E Serbia through Bulgaria to the Black Sea. Indexed with countries or republic as applicable.
Balkan Peninsula  search
BTEurope
 .Balkan Peninsula
UFBalkan States
 Balkans
RTTurkey
 Albania
 Croatia
 Montenegro
 Slovenia
 Yugoslavia
 Serbia
 Romania
 Bulgaria
 Bosnia-Herzegovina
 Greece
 Yugoslav Macedonia
SNSE Europe between the Adriatic and Ionian seas on the W; the Mediterranean Sea on the S; and the Aegean and Black seas on the E. Before 1978, also search Balkans.
Balkan States  search
USEBalkan Peninsula
Balkans  search
USEBalkan Peninsula
Balkhan  search
BTAsia
 .Turkmenia
 ..Balkhan
SNTwo mountain ranges in Krasnovodsk Oblast in W: the Greater Balkhan Range and the Lesser Balkhan Range. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Balkhash (Lake)  search
USELake Balkhash
Balkhash Kazakhstan  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Kazakhstan
 ..Balkhash Kazakhstan
SNCity on N shore of Lake Balkhash. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Balkhash region  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Kazakhstan
 ..Balkhash region
RTLake Balkhash
SNArea around Lake Balkhash. This term has multiple hierarchies.
ball and pillow  search
USEball-and-pillow
ball-and-pillow  search
BTsedimentary structures
 .soft sediment deformation
 ..ball-and-pillow
UFball and pillow
RTpillow structure
 primary structures
Ballachulish Complex  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..Ballachulish Complex
RTPrecambrian
 Perthshire Scotland
 Scotland
 Donegal Ireland
 Argyllshire Scotland
 Highland region Scotland
 Ireland
 Dalradian
SNWestern Scotland and NW Ireland. Also search Ballachulish Slates, Ballachulish Subgroup. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.
Ballantrae Complex  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Ordovician
 ....Lower Ordovician
 .....Arenigian
 ......Ballantrae Complex
RTUnited Kingdom
 Scotland
 Great Britain
SNSW Scotland. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Ballard County Kentucky  search
BTUnited States
 .Kentucky
 ..Ballard County Kentucky
balls, coal  search
USEcoal balls
Balmat  search
SNNo longer a valid term for GeoRef. See Balmat-Edwards mining district.
Balmat-Edwards District  search
USEBalmat-Edwards mining district
Balmat-Edwards mining district  search
BTUnited States
 .New York
 ..Saint Lawrence County New York
 ...Balmat-Edwards mining district
UFBalmat-Edwards District
RTmines
SNMining district in N New York. Before 1981, also search Balmat; Edwards. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Baltic Basin  search
USEBaltic region
Baltic Coast  search
USEBaltic region
Baltic Glaciation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Quaternary
 ....upper Quaternary
 .....Baltic Glaciation
UFBaltic Sea Stages
RTUpper Pleistocene
 Russian Federation
 Baltic Sea
 Kola Peninsula
 Germany
 Sweden
 Ancylus Lake
 Baltic region
 Poland
 Norway
 Denmark
 Baltic ice lake
 Estonia
 Latvia
 Lithuania
 Litorina Sea
 lower Holocene
 Yoldia Sea
SNComprises Baltic region plus Norway which was completely covered by Pleistocene to upper Holocene glaciation. Also search Baltic AND glaciation. Includes Baltic ice lake, Yoldia Sea, Ancylus Lake, and Litorina Sea. Indexed with ages as applicable.
Baltic ice lake  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Quarternary
 ....Pleistocene
 .....Upper Pleistocene
 ......Baltic ice lake
RTFinland
 Baltic Sea
 Kola Peninsula
 Sweden
 Baltic Glaciation
 Baltic region
 Norway
 Scandinavia
SNUpper Pleistocene. Stage of Baltic Glaciation which covered most of Scandinavia, Baltic Sea, Finland, and part of Kola Peninsula. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Baltic Plain  search
BTEurope
 .Baltic Plain
BTRussian Platform
 .Baltic Plain
RTRussian Federation
 Estonia
 Latvia
SNThis term has multiple hierarchies. Indexed with countries as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
Baltic region  search
BTEurope
 .Baltic region
NTCourland Spit
 Estonia
 Latvia
 Lithuania
UFBaltic Basin
 Baltic Coast
RTRussian Federation
 Finland
 Baltic Sea
 Germany
 Ancylus Lake
 Baltic Glaciation
 Denmark
 Baltic ice lake
 Litorina Sea
 Baltica
 Gulf of Riga
 Kaliningrad Russian Federation
 Laurussia
 Leningrad Oblast Russian Federation
 Peribaltic Syneclise
 Saint Petersburg Russi
SNAlso search Baltic. Indexed with Baltic Sea and countries as applicable.
Baltic Sea  search
BTAtlantic Ocean
 .North Atlantic
 ..Baltic Sea
NTGulf of Bothnia
 Gulf of Finland
 Gulf of Riga
 Kiel Bay
RTAland
 Ancylus Lake
 Baltic Glaciation
 Baltic region
 Baltic ice lake
 Yoldia Sea
 Bornholm
 Oland
 Oresund
 Saaremaa
 Stevns Klint
SNEnclosed by Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Russian Federation, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Germany.
Baltic Sea Stages  search
USEBaltic Glaciation
Baltic Shield  search
BTEurope
 .Baltic Shield
UFFennoscandian Shield
RTRussian Federation
 Finland
 Sweden
 Norway
 Denmark
 Estonia
 Latvia
 Baltica
 Fennoscandia
 Ladoga Series
 Lake Ladoga region
 Svecofennian Orogeny
SNIndexed with countries as applicable.
Baltic Syneclise  search
USEPeribaltic Syneclise
Baltica  search
RTRussian Federation
 Europe
 Finland
 Sweden
 Baltic region
 Poland
 continental drift
 Norway
 Laurentia
 Estonia
 Latvia
 Lithuania
 Scandinavia
 Baltic Shield
SNAncient continent including Scandinavia and parts of N Europe from Poland across the Baltic region to N European Russia. Indexed with countries and continents as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.
Baltimore Canyon  search
BTAtlantic Ocean
 .North Atlantic
 ..Baltimore Canyon
RTAtlantic Coastal Plain
 Baltimore Canyon Trough
 Leg 95
 submarine canyons
SNSubmarine canyon off Delaware and New Jersey. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Baltimore Canyon Trough  search
BTAtlantic Ocean
 .North Atlantic
 ..Baltimore Canyon Trough
RTBaltimore Canyon
SNBasin offshore E North America, extending from Cape Hatteras to Connecticut. In NW Atlantic. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Baltimore County Maryland  search
BTUnited States
 .Maryland
 ..Baltimore County Maryland
NTBaltimore Maryland
SNNearly surrounds city of Baltimore in N Maryland.
Baltimore Gneiss  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Precambrian
 ..Baltimore Gneiss
UFBaltimore Mafic Complex
RTVirginia
 Pennsylvania
 Maryland
SNUnconformable below Glenarm Series. W Maryland, SE Pennsylvania, and central N Virginia.
Baltimore Mafic Complex  search
USEBaltimore Gneiss
Baltimore Maryland  search
BTUnited States
 .Maryland
 ..Baltimore County Maryland
 ...Baltimore Maryland
SNCity in but independent of Baltimore County, on Chesapeake Bay in N Maryland.
Baltisphaeridium  search
BTpalynomorphs
 .acritarchs
 ..Baltisphaeridium
RTmicrofossils
SNIndexed with microfossils if applicable.
Baltoscandia  search
SNRegion consisting of Scandinavia, E Baltic region, NE Poland, and Podolia. For the modern region use Scandinavia, Baltic region, Poland, and/or Podolia as applicable.
Baluchistan Pakistan  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..Pakistan
 ...Baluchistan Pakistan
RTSulaiman Range
SNProvince in W Pakistan.
Bambak Armenia  search
USEPambak Armenia
Bamberg County South Carolina  search
BTUnited States
 .South Carolina
 ..Bamberg County South Carolina
Bamble Norway  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..Scandinavia
 ...Norway
 ....Telemark Norway
 .....Bamble Norway
SNVillage on the Skagerrak in S Telemark.
Bambui Group  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Precambrian
 ..Proterozoic
 ...Bambui Group
RTBrazil
 Minas Gerais Brazil
Bamian Afghanistan  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..Afghanistan
 ...Bamian Afghanistan
SNUse for the province in N central Afghanistan. Also a town.
Banat  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Banat
NTArad Romania
 Delinesti Romania
 Mehadia Romania
 Moldova Noua Romania
 Resita Romania
 Rusca Montana Romania
 Sasca-Montana Romania
 Severin
 Svinita Romania
UFBanat of Temesvar
RTYugoslavia
 Serbia
 Romania
 Getic Nappe
 Hungary
 Mehedinti Plateau
 Semenic Mountains
 Vojvodina Yugoslavia
SNAgricultural region. Part of Vojvodina in Serbia and the former Banat region of Romania. Also includes part of Hungary near Szeged. Indexed with countries or regions as applicable.
Banat of Temesvar  search
USEBanat
Bancroft Ontario  search
BTstings County Ontario
 .Bancroft Ontario
SNVillage between Ottawa and Georgian Bay in SE Ontario.
Band-e-Amir Iran  search
BTAsia
 .Middle East
 ..Iran
 ...Fars Iran
 ....Band-e-Amir Iran
SNA settlement in S Iran.
band-pass filters  search
USEpassband filters
Banda Arc  search
BTPacific Ocean
 .West Pacific
 ..Banda Arc
RTBanda Sea
 Indonesian Seas
 Timor
 Timor Trough
SNIsland arc in the Banda Sea, Indonesian Seas region separated from Australian continental crust by the horseshoe-shaped Timor, Aru, and Seram troughs. Includes Sumba, Timor, Seram. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Banda Sea  search
BTPacific Ocean
 .South Pacific
 ..Southwest Pacific
 ...Banda Sea
BTPacific Ocean
 .West Pacific
 ..Indonesian Seas
 ...Banda Sea
RTBanda Arc
SNN of Timor, E of Flores Sea, S of Moluccas and W of New Guinea. This term has multiple hierarchies. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Bandai  search
BTnshu
 .Fukushima Japan
 ..Bandai
UFBandai-san
RTvolcanoes
SNAs of 1998, restricted to the volcano in Fukushima, central Honshu, Japan. Indexed with mountain range if applicable.
Bandai-san  search
USEBandai
Bandama River  search
BTAfrica
 .West Africa
 ..Ivory Coast
 ...Bandama River
SNRises in N Ivory Coast and flows S into Gulf of Guinea.
banded gneiss  search
BTmetamorphic rocks
 .gneisses
 ..banded gneiss
Banded Gneissic Comple  search
Banded Gneissic Complex  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Precambrian
 ..Proterozoic
 ...Banded Gneissic Complex
RTIndia
SNProterozoic. Rajasthan-Gujarat area, India. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
banded iron formations  search
BTsedimentary rocks
 .chemically precipitated rocks
 ..iron formations
 ...banded iron formations
UFBIFs
RTalgoma-type deposits
 banded materials
 ferruginous composition
 iron-rich composition
 itabirite
 jaspilite
 taconite
SNBefore 1998, also search iron formations AND (banded materials OR banded structures).
banded materials  search
RTmaterials
 banded iron formations
SNBefore 1978, also search banded.
banded structures  search
UFbanding
RTpetrology
 igneous rocks
 metamorphic rocks
SNAlso search banded.
Bandelier Tuff  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Quarternary
 ....Pleistocene
 .....Bandelier Tuff
RTNew Mexico
SNN central New Mexico. Also search Bandelier Rhyolite Tuff. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Bandera County Texas  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Bandera County Texas
banding  search
USEbanded structures
Bandundu Congo Democratic Republic  search
BTAfrica
 .Central Africa
 ..Congo Democratic Republic
 ...Bandundu Congo Democratic Republic
SNProvince. E Congo Democratic Republic. Before 1998, Bandundu Zaire was also used. Added to Thesaurus in 1998.
Banff Alberta  search
BTCanada
 .Western Canada
 ..Alberta
 ...Banff Alberta
SNTown in Banff National Park near the British Columbia border in SW Alberta.
Banff Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Carboniferous
 ....Mississippian
 .....Lower Mississippian
 ......Kinderhookian
 .......Banff Formation
RTAlberta
 British Columbia
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1989.
Banff National Park  search
BTCanada
 .Western Canada
 ..Alberta
 ...Banff National Park
RTnational parks
 Columbia Icefield
 Kicking Horse River valley
 Lake Louise
SNOn the British Columbia border in SW Alberta.
Banffshire Scotland  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..United Kingdom
 ...Great Britain
 ....Scotland
 .....Grampian region Scotland
 ......Banffshire Scotland
SNFormer county on Moray Firth in NE Scotland.
Bangalore India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Karnataka India
 ....Bangalore India
SNCity and district in SE Karnataka, S India.
Bangka  search
BTAsia
 .Far East
 ..Indonesia
 ...Bangka
RTSumatra
SNAn island between SE Sumatra and SW Borneo.
Bangkok Thailand  search
BTAsia
 .Far East
 ..Thailand
 ...Bangkok Thailand
SNCity on the Gulf of Siam in S Thailand.
Bangla Desh  search
USEBangladesh
Bangladesh  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..Bangladesh
NTMagura Bangladesh
UFBangla Desh
 East Pakistan
RTIndo-Australian Plate
 Bengal
 Brahmaputra River
 Ganges River
 Indian Plate
 Rajmahal Series
 Surma Group
 Vindhyan Basin
SNFormerly East Pakistan.
Bangor Lim  search
Bangor Limestone  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Carboniferous
 ....Mississippian
 .....Upper Mississippian
 ......Bangor Limestone
RTAlabama
 Georgia
 Tennessee
SNIncludes Burgess Oolite and Rockwood Oolite, and Spout Spring Oolite near base. Alabama, central and E Tennessee, and NW Georgia.
Banja Luka Bosnia-Herzegovina  search
BTsnia-Herzegovina
 .Bosnia
 ..Banja Luka Bosnia-Herzegovina
UFBanja Luka Yugoslavia
SNTown in N Bosnia. Before 1993, Banja Luka Yugoslavia was also used.
Banja Luka Yugoslavia  search
USEBanja Luka Bosnia-Herzegovina
Bank Azerbaijan  search
BTEurope
 .Azerbaijan
 ..Bank Azerbaijan
SNTown in SE Azerbaijan. This term has multiple hierarchies.
banks  search
BTsedimentary structures
 .biogenic structures
 ..banks
RTembankments
 algal banks
 carbonate banks
 mud banks
SNRestricted usage. Used for sedimentary structures. Not used for river banks or embankments.
Banks County Georgia  search
BTUnited States
 .Georgia
 ..Banks County Georgia
Banks Island  search
RTArctic Archipelago
 Franklin District Northwest Territories
 Northwest Territories
SNW Franklin District. Indexed with Franklin District Northwest Territories as applicable.
Bankura India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...West Bengal India
 ....Bankura India
SNTown and district in W West Bengal, E India.
Banner County Nebraska  search
BTUnited States
 .Nebraska
 ..Banner County Nebraska
Banning Fault  search
BTUnited States
 .California
 ..Banning Fault
SNSouthern California. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Bannock Basin  search
BTMediterranean Sea
 .East Mediterranean
 ..Bannock Basin
RTLeg 13
 Leg 42A
SNCentral Mediterranean Sea, WSW of Crete. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Bannock County Idaho  search
BTUnited States
 .Idaho
 ..Bannock County Idaho
RTBannock Range
SNSE Idaho.
Bannock Range  search
BTUnited States
 .Idaho
 ..Bannock Range
RTBannock County Idaho
 Oneida County Idaho
SNSE Idaho. Indexed with counties as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Banska Stiavnica Slovakia  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Slovakia
 ...Banska Stiavnica Slovakia
SNTown in S Slovakia. Before 1995, Banska Stiavnica Czechoslovakia was also used.
Baoha Vietnam  search
BTAsia
 .Far East
 ..Vietnam
 ...Baoha Vietnam
SNA town in N Vietnam.
Baquero Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Lower Cretaceous
 .....Baquero Formation
RTArgentina
 Santa Cruz Argentina
Bar Ukraine  search
BTEurope
 .Ukraine
 ..Bar Ukraine
SNTown SW of Kiev in W Vinnitsa Oblast. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Barabash Suite  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Permian
 ....Upper Permian
 .....Barabash Suite
RTRussian Federation
 Primorye Russian Federation
SNPrimorye Kray in Russian Far East.
Baraboo Quartzit  search
Baraboo Quartzite  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Precambrian
 ..Proterozoic
 ...Algonkian
 ....Baraboo Quartzite
RTWisconsin
SNUnderlies Seeley Slate. Sauk and Columbia counties in S central Wisconsin.
Baraboo Wisconsin  search
BTUnited States
 .Wisconsin
 ..Sauk County Wisconsin
 ...Baraboo Wisconsin
SNCity in S central Wisconsin.
Baraga County Michigan  search
BTUnited States
 .Michigan
 ..Michigan Upper Peninsula
 ...Baraga County Michigan
SNNW Michigan Upper Peninsula, N Michigan.
Baraga Group  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Precambrian
 ..Proterozoic
 ...Baraga Group
RTMichigan
 Hemlock Formation
 Michigamme Formation
SNN Michigan. Includes Goodrich Quartzite, Michigamme Formation (Bijiki iron formation, Clarksburg volcanics and Greenwood iron formation); Hemlock Formation, Fence River Formation and Badwater Greenstone. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Barail Group  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Paleogene
 ....Barail Group
RTOligocene
 India
 upper Eocene
SNIn Assam and Meghalaya, NE India. Upper Eocene-Oligocene. Indexed with age or ages. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Barakar Formation  search
USEBarakar Stage
Barakar India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...West Bengal India
 ....Barakar India
SNTown in W West Bengal, E India.
Barakar Stage  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Permian
 ....Lower Permian
 .....Barakar Stage
UFBarakar Formation
RTIndia
 Damuda Series
SNLowest stage of the Damuda Series. Named for Barakar River in Raniganj coal field of West Bengal. In N, NE, and E India.
Baralaba Coal Measures  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Baralaba Coal Measures
RTCarboniferous
 Permian
 Queensland Australia
 Australia
SNPermo-Carboniferous. Indexed with ages as applicable.
Baranya Mountains  search
USEMecsek Mountains
Baraolt Basin  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Romania
 ...Transylvania
 ....Baraolt Basin
SNSE Transylvania.
Baraolt Romania  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Romania
 ...Transylvania
 ....Baraolt Romania
SNTown in SE Transylvania.
Barataria Bay  search
BTUnited States
 .Louisiana
 ..Barataria Bay
RTGulf Coastal Plain
 Lafourche Parish Louisiana
 Plaquemines Parish Louisiana
SNInlet of Gulf of Mexico between Lafourche and Plaquemines parishes.
Barbados  search
BTCaribbean region
 .West Indies
 ..Antilles
 ...Lesser Antilles
 ....Barbados
RTLeg 171A
 ODP Site 1044
SNEasternmost island of the Lesser Antilles.
Barbados Ridge  search
BTAtlantic Ocean
 .North Atlantic
 ..Barbados Ridge
RTDSDP Site 541
 DSDP Site 542
 DSDP Site 543
 Leg 110
 Leg 156
 Leg 78A
 ODP Site 671
 ODP Site 947
 ODP Site 948
 ODP Site 949
SNExtends N and S of Barbados with the island in the center.
Barber County Kansas  search
BTUnited States
 .Kansas
 ..Barber County Kansas
SNOn the Oklahoma border in S Kansas.
Barberton greenstone belt  search
BTAfrica
 .Southern Africa
 ..Barberton greenstone belt
RTKaapvaal Craton
 Barberton Mountain Land
 Fig Tree Series
 Mpumalanga South Africa
 Onverwacht Group
 South Africa
 Swaziland
 Transvaal region
SNIn Kaapvaal Craton, Mpumalanga and N Swaziland. Before 1993, also search Barberton and greenstone. Includes Onverwacht Group, Fig Tree Group, and Moodies Group. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Barberton Mountain Land  search
BTAfrica
 .Southern Africa
 ..South Africa
 ...Mpumalanga South Africa
 ....Barberton Mountain Land
RTBarberton greenstone belt
SNNE South Africa.
Barberton South Africa  search
BTAfrica
 .Southern Africa
 ..South Africa
 ...Mpumalanga South Africa
 ....Barberton South Africa
SNTown near Swaziland border.
barbosalite  search
BTphosphates
 .barbosalite
Barbour County Alabama  search
BTUnited States
 .Alabama
 ..Barbour County Alabama
Barbour County West Virginia  search
BTUnited States
 .West Virginia
 ..Barbour County West Virginia
Barcelona City Spain  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Iberian Peninsula
 ...Spain
 ....Catalonia Spain
 .....Barcelona Spain
 ......Barcelona City Spain
SNRefers only to the city on the Mediterranean Sea. Before 1981, also search Barcelona Spain.
Barcelona Spain  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Iberian Peninsula
 ...Spain
 ....Catalonia Spain
 .....Barcelona Spain
NTBarcelona City Spain
 Vich Spain
RTLlobregat River basin
 Montserrat
 Ter River basin
SNRefers only to the province on the Mediterranean Sea. From 1981-1993, also search Barcelona Province and Spain. For the city, see Barcelona City Spain.
barchans  search
BTdunes
 .barchans
BTeolian features
 .barchans
RTwind transport
 geomorphology
 arid environment
 deserts
SNThis term has multiple hierarchies. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Bardo Mountains  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Poland
 ...Wroclaw Poland
 ....Bardo Mountains
SNIn SW Poland.
Barents Sea  search
BTArctic Ocean
 .Barents Sea
NTWhite Sea
RTBear Island
SNPart of Arctic Ocean N of Norway and Russian Federation, and between Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya.
Bari Italy  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Italy
 ...Apulia Italy
 ....Bari Italy
SNCity and province on the Adriatic Sea.
Barinas Venezuela  search
BTSouth America
 .Venezuela
 ..Barinas Venezuela
SNState in SW Venezuela. Also a city.
Baringo Lake  search
USELake Baringo
barite  search
BTsulfates
 .barite
RTbarite deposits
SNAs of 1981, use barite deposits for barite as a commodity.
barite deposits  search
RTAberfeldy
 Clara Mine
 barite
 Fukazawa Mine
 North Pole Deposit
SNCommodity. See List C.
barium  search
BTmetals
 .alkaline earth metals
 ..barium
UFBa
RTbarylite
barium feldspar  search
BTsilicates
 .framework silicates
 ..feldspar group
 ...barium feldspar
NTcelsian
 hyalophane
 paracelsian
RTbarium silicates
barium silicates  search
BTsilicates
 .barium silicates
RTbarium feldspar
Barmer India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Rajasthan India
 ....Barmer India
SNTown in W Rajasthan, W India.
Barnes County North Dakota  search
BTUnited States
 .North Dakota
 ..Barnes County North Dakota
Barnes ice cap  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Baffin Island
 ...Barnes ice cap
SNCentral Baffin Island in Franklin District. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Barnett Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Carboniferous
 ....Mississippian
 .....Barnett Formation
RTTexas
SNCentral Texas. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Barnstable County Massachusetts  search
BTUnited States
 .Massachusetts
 ..Barnstable County Massachusetts
NTCape Cod
 Woods Hole Massachusetts
RTBuzzards Bay
 Massachusetts Bay
SNCoextensive with Cape Cod in SE Massachusetts.
Barnwell County South Carolina  search
BTUnited States
 .South Carolina
 ..Barnwell County South Carolina
RTSavannah River Plant
SNW South Carolina.
Barnwell Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Paleogene
 ....Eocene
 .....upper Eocene
 ......Barnwell Formation
RTSouth Carolina
 Georgia
 Jackson Group
SNIn Jackson Group. SW South Carolina and E Georgia. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Baroda  search
SNNo longer a valid term for GeoRef. Former state in SE Gujarat, W India. For the city and district, see Baroda India.
Baroda India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Gujarat India
 ....Baroda India
SNCity and district in SE Gujarat, W India.
barometry, geologic  search
USEgeologic barometry
Baron France  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Oise France
 ....Baron France
SNSW Oise, France.
Baronnies  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Drome France
 ....Baronnies
SNHilly region in SE France.
Barracuda Ridge  search
BTAtlantic Ocean
 .North Atlantic
 ..Barracuda Ridge
RTCaribbean Sea
SNIn the Anegada Passage area between the Virgin Islands and the N Leeward Islands.
Barrandian  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Cambrian
 ....Middle Cambrian
 .....Barrandian
SNStage.
Barrandian area  search
USEBarrandian Basin
Barrandian Basin  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Czech Republic
 ...Barrandian Basin
UFBarrandian area
Barre Granite  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Devonian
 ....Barre Granite
RTVermont
SNAn elongated, oval-shaped body that crops out in northwestern and west-central parts of East Barre Quadrangle, Washington County, Vermont.
Barreal Argentina  search
BTSouth America
 .Argentina
 ..San Juan Argentina
 ...Barreal Argentina
SNTown in SW San Juan Province.
Barreiras Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Tertiary
 ....Barreiras Formation
RTBrazil
 Pernambuco Brazil
 Bahia Brazil
 Espirito Santo Brazil
 Para Brazil
Barreirinhas Basin  search
BTSouth America
 .Brazil
 ..Maranhao Brazil
 ...Barreirinhas Basin
SNNE Maranhao.
Barremian  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Lower Cretaceous
 .....Barremian
RTSpeeton Clay
SNEurope. Above Hauterivian, below Aptian.
Barren County Kentucky  search
BTUnited States
 .Kentucky
 ..Barren County Kentucky
Barren Measures  search
RTIndia
 Middle Permian
SNMiddle Permian. Northeastern Indian coal fields. Underlies Raniganj Stage; overlies Barakar Formation. Indexed with age or ages as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
barrier bars  search
USElongshore bars
barrier beaches  search
BTshore features
 .barrier beaches
RTgeomorphology
 barrier islands
 beaches
 longshore bars
 sand ridges
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1985.
barrier islands  search
RTgeomorphology
 artificial islands
 shorelines
 islands
 barrier beaches
 shore features
 longshore bars
 sand ridges
 bars
 capes
 littoral erosion
 tombolos
SNBefore 1981, also search barriers. Indexed with shore features if applicable.
barrier reefs  search
BTreefs
 .barrier reefs
RTlagoons
 fringing reefs
barriers  search
SNAs of 1981, no longer a valid term for GeoRef. See barrier islands; longshore bars. As of 1993, also see disposal barriers.
Barringer Crater  search
USEMeteor Crater
Barron County Wisconsin  search
BTUnited States
 .Wisconsin
 ..Barron County Wisconsin
Barrovian-type deposits  search
RTmineral deposits, genesis
 metamorphism
 aureoles
 haloes
 zoning
 metamorphic belts
 prograde metamorphism
 regional metamorphism
SNBelt of increasing metamorphic grade in complexes of regional dynamothermal metamorphism. May also refer to a characteristic facies series in Scotland. Also index type of metamorphism. Added to Thesaurus in 1998.
Barrow Alaska  search
BTUnited States
 .Alaska
 ..Northern Alaska
 ...Barrow Alaska
UFPoint Barrow Alaska
RTArctic Ocean
 Barrow Field
 Point Barrow
SNCity about 12 miles S of Point Barrow on the Arctic Ocean. As of 1993, also use for the Eskimo village on Point Barrow headland, N Alaska. Also search Point Barrow or Nuwuk in combination with Alaska.
Barrow County Georgia  search
BTUnited States
 .Georgia
 ..Barrow County Georgia
Barrow Field  search
RToil and gas fields
 North Slope
 Northern Alaska
 Barrow Alaska
SNNatural gas field. North Slope, N Alaska. Also in other locations. Indexed with county or region as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Barrow Island  search
RTWestern Australia
SNOff NW coast of Western Australia. Indexed with Western Australia as applicable.
Barry County Michigan  search
BTUnited States
 .Michigan
 ..Michigan Lower Peninsula
 ...Barry County Michigan
Barry County Missouri  search
BTUnited States
 .Missouri
 ..Barry County Missouri
bars  search
NTlongshore bars
 point bars
UFsand bars
RTgeomorphology
 fluvial features
 bedding plane irregularities
 barrier islands
 shorelines
 shore features
 sand ridges
 capes
 littoral erosion
 tombolos
 planar bedding structures
 veins
SNAs of 1993, not to be used for sedimentary structures. Also index fluvial features and/or shore features if applicable.
Barsakelmes  search
BTAsia
 .Central Asia
 ..Barsakelmes
RTKazakhstan
 Uzbekistan
 Aral Sea
 Ustyurt
SNRegion of depression in Ustyurt in W Uzbekistan. Also an island in the Aral Sea, S Kazakhstan. Indexed with Uzbekistan or Kazakhstan as applicable.
Barstovian  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Neogene
 ....Miocene
 .....Barstovian
SNNorth America.
Barstow California  search
BTUnited States
 .California
 ..San Bernardino County California
 ...Barstow California
SNCity in S California.
Barstow Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Neogene
 ....Miocene
 .....Barstow Formation
RTCalifornia
SNMiddle and upper Miocene. S California. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Barth Germany  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Germany
 ...Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Germany
 ....Barth Germany
RTMecklenburg
SNTown on the Baltic Sea in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Before 1993, Barth was used with Mecklenburg and with Rostock Bezirk.
Bartholomew County Indiana  search
BTIndiana
 .Bartholomew County Indiana
Bartlesville Sand  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Carboniferous
 ....Bartlesville Sand
RTMississippian
 Pennsylvanian
 Oklahoma
 Kansas
SNIn Kansas and Oklahoma.
Barton Beds  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Paleogene
 ....Eocene
 .....Bartonian
 ......Barton Beds
RTEngland
 United Kingdom
SNOverlain by the lower Headon Beds and rest on the upper Bracklesham Beds. Divided into lower, middle, and upper Barton Beds. Hampshire County in S England. Also search Barton.
Barton County Kansas  search
BTUnited States
 .Kansas
 ..Barton County Kansas
SNCentral Kansas.
Barton County Missouri  search
BTUnited States
 .Missouri
 ..Barton County Missouri
SNSW Missouri.
Barton Springs  search
RTTexas
 Travis County Texas
 Hays County Texas
SNS central Texas. Indexed with counties or regions as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Bartonian  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Paleogene
 ....Eocene
 .....Bartonian
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Paleogene
 ....Eocene
 .....upper Eocene
 ......Bartonian
NTBarton Beds
RTPriabonian
SNEurope. Above Auversian, below Ludian.
Bartow County Georgia  search
BTUnited States
 .Georgia
 ..Bartow County Georgia
NTCartersville Georgia
SNNW Georgia.
Barwell Meteorite  search
BTmeteorites
 .stony meteorites
 ..chondrites
 ...L chondrites
 ....Barwell Meteorite
RTEngland
 United Kingdom
 Great Britain
 Leicestershire England
SNImpact in Leicestershire, England. Before 1981, also search Barwell and meteorites. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
barylite  search
BTsilicates
 .ring silicates
 ..barylite
RTbarium
Barytherioidea  search
BTChordata
 .Vertebrata
 ..Tetrapoda
 ...Mammalia
 ....Theria
 .....Eutheria
 ......Proboscidea
 .......Barytherioidea
Bas-Dauphine  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Bas-Dauphine
RTDauphine
 Dauphine Alps
SNRegion. Part of the historic province of Dauphine in SE France. Associated with the Dauphine Alps.
Bas-Rhin France  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Bas-Rhin France
NTBouxwiller France
 Soultz-sous-Forets France
 Strasbourg France
RTAlsace
 Saar Basin
SNDepartment in Alsace in extreme NE France.
Bas-Zaire Congo Democratic Republic  search
USELower Zaire Congo Democratic Republic
basalt flows  search
RTbasalts
 flow texture
 flood basalts
 lava flows
SNBefore 1993, also search lava flows AND basalts. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
basalt glass  search
SNNot a valid term for GeoRef. Use volcanic glass AND (basalts or basaltic composition).
basaltic  search
SNNot a valid term for GeoRef. Use basaltic composition or basaltic layer.
basaltic composition  search
RTbasalts
 igneous rocks
 composition
SNBefore 1978, also search basaltic.
basaltic domes  search
USEshield volcanoes
basaltic layer  search
UFlayer, basaltic
 sima
RTcrust
 lower crust
 granitic layer
basaltic rocks  search
SNNot a valid term for GeoRef. Use basalts or basaltic composition.
basalts  search
BTigneous rocks
 .volcanic rocks
 ..basalts
NTabsarokite
 alkali basalts
 ankaramite
 columnar basalt
 flood basalts
 melaphyre
 mid-ocean ridge basalts
 ocean-island basalts
 oceanite
 olivine basalt
 olivine tholeiite
 shoshonite
 tholeiite
 tholeiitic basalt
 trap rocks
RTlava
 augite
 basalt flows
 basaltic composition
 diabase
 metabasalt
 picrite
 picrite porphyry
 pillow lava
 pyrolite
 quartz diabase
 tholeiitic composition
SNAlso search basaltic rocks.
basanite  search
BTigneous rocks
 .volcanic rocks
 ..basalts
 ...alkali basalts
 ....basanite
basculating faults  search
USEwrench faults
base exchange  search
USEion exchange
base maps  search
BTmaps
 .base maps
RTtopographic maps
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1989.
base metals  search
BTmetal ores
 .base metals
RTmetals
 Agrokipia Deposit
 copper ores
 zinc ores
 precious metals
 alloys
 Broken Hill Mine
 Gays River Deposit
 lead ores
 Nasliden Mine
SNSee list C for use as a commodity term.
base surges  search
RTvolcanism
 sedimentation
 nuees ardentes
 pyroclastic flows
 pyroclastic surges
 surges
SNUsed in sedimentation and for pyroclastic flows. As of 1995, also see pyroclastic surges if applicable.
base-level peneplain  search
USEpeneplains
Basel Switzerland  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Switzerland
 ...Basel Switzerland
UFBasle Switzerland
SNCanton composed of demicantons of Basel-Land and Basel-Stadt. Also a city.
baselevel  search
SNUse peneplains, erosion surfaces, lake-level changes, or sea-level changes.
baseline studies  search
RTquality control
 background level
 geodesy
 environmental analysis
 feasibility studies
 monitoring
 sensitivity analysis
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1998.
basement  search
UFbasement rocks
 basement structure
RTtectonics
 igneous rocks
 metamorphic rocks
 crust
 Mohorovicic discontinuity
 basement tectonics
 sedimentary cover
 shields
 supracrustals
basement rocks  search
USEbasement
basement structure  search
USEbasement
basement tectonics  search
BTtectonics
 .basement tectonics
RTmetamorphic rocks
 basement
 supracrustals
 thick-skinned tectonics
SNBefore 1993, also search basement AND tectonics. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Bashkiria Russian Federation  search
USEBashkortostan Russian Federation
Bashkirian  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Carboniferous
 ....Pennsylvanian
 .....Bashkirian
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Carboniferous
 ....Upper Carboniferous
 .....Bashkirian
UFBashkirian Stage
SNEurope.
Bashkirian Stage  search
USEBashkirian
Bashkortostan Russian Federation  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Russian Federation
 ..Bashkortostan Russian Federation
BTEurope
 .Bashkortostan Russian Federation
NTSibay Russian Federation
 Tuymazy Russian Federation
 Uchaly Russian Federation
 Ufa Russian Federation
UFBashkiria Russian Federation
RTArlan
 Ural region
 Yuryuzan Russian Federation
SNFormer Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in SE Russian Federation. Before 1993, Bashkortostan Russian Republic was also used. This term has multiple hierarchies.
BASIC  search
BTcomputer languages
 .BASIC
RTcomputer programs
 data processing
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1985.
basic rocks  search
SNNot a valid term for GeoRef. Use mafic composition.
Basilicata Italy  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Italy
 ...Basilicata Italy
NTMatera Italy
 Potenza Italy
RTVulture Mountain
 Irpinia earthquake 1980
 Lucania
SNAutonomous region in S Italy.
basin analysis  search
RTsedimentation
 geochemistry
 geophysical methods
 geophysical surveys
 facies
 analysis
 basin inversion
 decompaction
 petroleum exploration
 sedimentary basins
SNFor petroleum studies, also search petroleum exploration AND sedimentary basins or basin of interest e.g. Williston Basin. Also index types of analysis. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.
Basin and Range Province  search
BTNorth America
 .Basin and Range Province
NTGreat Basin
RTNew Mexico
 United States
 Idaho
 Utah
 California
 Texas
 Nevada
 Arizona
 Oregon
 Battle Mountain High
 Manzano Mountains
 Mineral Mountains
 Nopah Range
 Pilot Range
 Quitman Mountains
 Rincon Mountains
 Sevier Desert
 Sonora Mexico
 Tijeras Canyon
 Toquima Range
 Walker
SNPhysiographic province in W and SW United States characterized by a series of tilted fault blocks forming longitudinal, asymmetric ridges of mountains and broad intervening basins.
basin inversion  search
UFinversion, basin
RTtectonics
 basin analysis
 basins
 inversion tectonics
 relief inversion
SNAlso search basins AND (inversion OR inversion tectonics).
basin management  search
RTreclamation
 ground water
 land management
 land use
 conservation
 water resources
 drainage basins
 hydrology
 basins
 surface water
 water management
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1982.
Basin of Mexico  search
SNNot a valid term for GeoRef. See Sigsbee Deep or Valley of Mexico.
basin range structure  search
UFbasin-range structure
 range, basin
RTtectonics
 faults
 basins
SNAlso search basin range; basin-range.
basin-range structure  search
USEbasin range structure
basins  search
NTback-arc basins
 fore-arc basins
 foreland basins
 intermontane basins
 intracratonic basins
 marginal basins
 piggyback basins
 pull-apart basins
 sedimentary basins
UFbasins, structural
 structural basins
RTsedimentation
 ocean basins
 tectonics
 extension tectonics
 paleogeography
 folds
 drainage basins
 basin inversion
 basin management
 basin range structure
 depressions
 morphostructures
 playas
basins, drainage  search
USEdrainage basins
basins, structural  search
USEbasins
Baskunchak Series  search
RTTriassic
 Permian
 Russian Federation
 Permian-Triassic boundary
SNS Urals. Indexed with age as applicable.
Basle Switzerland  search
USEBasel Switzerland
Basommatophora  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Mollusca
 ..Gastropoda
 ...Pulmonata
 ....Basommatophora
NTPlanorbis
Basque Provinces Spain  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Iberian Peninsula
 ...Spain
 ....Basque Provinces Spain
NTAlava Spain
 Guipuzcoa Spain
 Vizcaya Spain
UFPais Vasco Spain
RTCantabrian Basin
SNOn the Bay of Biscay near the French border. Indexed with provinces as applicable.
Bass Basin  search
USEBass Strait
Bass Islands Dolomite  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Silurian
 ....Bass Islands Dolomite
RTOntario
 Kentucky
 Ohio
 Pennsylvania
 New York
 Michigan
 Michigan Basin
SNMichigan Basin. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Bass Strait  search
UFBass Basin
RTAustralia
 Indian Ocean
 Tamar Estuary
 Tasman Sea
 Western Port
 Wynyard Australia
SNLarge channel separating Victoria from Tasmania and the Indian Ocean from the Tasman Sea. Also index Tasman Sea and/or Indian Ocean as applicable.
bassanite  search
BTsulfates
 .bassanite
Basses-Alpes  search
USEAlpes-de-Haute Provence France
Basses-Pyrenees France  search
USEPyrenees-Atlantiques France
Bastar India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Madhya Pradesh India
 ....Bastar India
SNDistrict in SE Madhya Pradesh, E central India.
bastnaesite  search
BTcarbonates
 .bastnaesite
BThalides
 .fluorides
 ..bastnaesite
UFbastnasite
RTrare earth deposits
SNThis term has multiple hierarchies.
bastnasite  search
USEbastnaesite
Bastogne Belgium  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..Belgium
 ...Luxembourg Belgium
 ....Bastogne Belgium
SNTown in E Luxembourg Province, SE Belgium.
Bastrop County Texas  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Bastrop County Texas
SNS central Texas.
Basutoland  search
USELesotho
Bataan Philippine Islands  search
BTAsia
 .Far East
 ..Philippine Islands
 ...Luzon
 ....Bataan Philippine Islands
SNProvince, S Luzon, Philippine Islands.
Batchawana Bay  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Ontario
 ...Batchawana Bay
RTLake Superior
SNOn Lake Superior N of Sault Sainte Marie.
Batenev Ridge  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Russian Federation
 ..Kuznetsk Alatau
 ...Batenev Ridge
SNIn the Kuznetsk Alatau of the Khakass Autonomous Oblast SW of Krasnoyarsk. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Bates County Missouri  search
BTUnited States
 .Missouri
 ..Bates County Missouri
Batesville Arkansas  search
BTUnited States
 .Arkansas
 ..Independence County Arkansas
 ...Batesville Arkansas
SNCity in NE Arkansas.
Bath County Kentucky  search
BTUnited States
 .Kentucky
 ..Bath County Kentucky
SNNE Kentucky.
Bath County Virginia  search
BTUnited States
 .Virginia
 ..Bath County Virginia
SNW Virginia.
Bath England  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..United Kingdom
 ...Great Britain
 ....England
 .....Avon England
 ......Bath England
RTSomerset England
SNCity near Bristol, SW England.
batholiths  search
BTintrusions
 .batholiths
UFabyssolith
 central granite
 intrusive mountain
RTigneous rocks
 domes
 dikes
 laccoliths
 lopoliths
 plutons
 stocks
Bathonian  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Jurassic
 ....Middle Jurassic
 .....Bathonian
NTGreat Oolite Series
RTDogger
 Garn Formation
 White Limestone
SNEurope. Above Bajocian, below Callovian.
Bathurst Australia  search
BTAustralasia
 .Australia
 ..New South Wales Australia
 ...Bathurst Australia
SNCity in New South Wales.
Bathurst Island  search
RTNorthern Territory Australia
 Queen Elizabeth Islands
 Arctic Archipelago
 Franklin District Northwest Territories
 Northwest Territories
SNIsland in Parry Islands, NW Franklin District, Northwest Territories, Canada. Also island in Northern Territory, Australia. Indexed with regions as applicable.
Bathurst mining district  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Maritime Provinces
 ...New Brunswick
 ....Gloucester County New Brunswick
 .....Bathurst mining district
RTmines
 metal ores
SNGloucester County, New Brunswick. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Bathurst New Brunswick  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Maritime Provinces
 ...New Brunswick
 ....Gloucester County New Brunswick
 .....Bathurst New Brunswick
SNCity, Gloucester County. Also see Bathurst mining district if applicable.
bathymetric features  search
SNUse bottom features for ocean floors. Use bottom features and lakes for lakebed features.
bathymetric maps  search
BTmaps
 .bathymetric maps
RTocean floors
 bathymetry
 isobath maps
SNBefore 1978, search maps AND bathymetric.
bathymetric methods  search
USEbathymetry
bathymetry  search
UFbathymetric methods
RTocean floors
 oceanography
 geophysical methods
 echo sounding
 geophysical surveys
 marine geology
 bathymetric maps
 isobath maps
 paleo-oceanography
 paleobathymetry
 Seabeam
Baton Rouge Louisiana  search
BTUnited States
 .Louisiana
 ..East Baton Rouge Parish Louisiana
 ...Baton Rouge Louisiana
SNCity on the Mississippi River in SE central Louisiana.
Battambang Cambodia  search
BTAsia
 .Far East
 ..Cambodia
 ...Battambang Cambodia
SNTown in W Cambodia.
Battery Point Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Devonian
 ....Lower Devonian
 .....Battery Point Formation
RTQuebec
 Gaspe Peninsula
SNGaspe Peninsula. Above York River Formation; below Malbaie Formation. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Battle Mountain  search
RTColorado
 Nevada
 Eagle County Colorado
 Lander County Nevada
SNLander County, N central Nevada; Eagle County, N central Colorado. Indexed with counties or regions as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Battle Mountain High  search
BTUnited States
 .Battle Mountain High
RTIdaho
 Wyoming
 Montana
 Nevada
 Great Basin
 Basin and Range Province
 Oregon
 heat flow
 Western U.S.
SNHeat flow anomaly in region including parts of N Nevada, SE Oregon, S Idaho, SW Montana, and NW Wyoming. Indexed with states as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
Batumi Georgian Republic  search
BTEurope
 .Georgian Republic
 ..Adzharistan Georgian Republic
 ...Batumi Georgian Republic
SNCity on the Black Sea near the Turkish border. May also be called Batum.
Bauchi Plateau  search
USEJos Plateau
Bauer Deep  search
BTPacific Ocean
 .South Pacific
 ..Southeast Pacific
 ...Bauer Deep
SNSE Pacific Ocean, E of the East Pacific Rise. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Baumkirchen  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Austria
 ...Tyrol Austria
 ....Baumkirchen
RTInn Valley
SNRegion in Inn Valley.
Bauru Formation  search
RTUpper Cretaceous
 Brazil
 Sao Paulo Brazil
 Minas Gerais Brazil
 K-T boundary
 lower Tertiary
SNUpper Cretaceous to lower Tertiary. Indexed with ages as applicable.
bauxite  search
RTsedimentary rocks
 aluminum
 clay minerals
 aluminum oxides
 aluminum ores
 clastic rocks
 bauxitization
 laterites
SNIncludes use both as a commodity term and a sedimentary rock. See List C for use as a commodity term.
bauxitization  search
RTprocesses
 mineral deposits, genesis
 bauxite
 weathering
 laterites
 laterization
Bavaria Germany  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Germany
 ...Bavaria Germany
NTAnsbach Germany
 Bavarian Forest
 Bavarian Massif
 Bayreuth Germany
 Coburg Germany
 Eichstatt Germany
 Erlangen Germany
 Franconian Forest
 Franconian Jura
 Hagendorf
 Kelheim Germany
 Middle Franconia
 Munchberg Gneiss Massif
 Nabburg Germany
 Neuburg Germany
 Nuremberg Germany
 Passau Germany
 Regensburg Germany
 Ries Crater
 Sandelzhausen Germany
 Solnhofen Germany
 Spessart
 Upper Bavaria Germany
 Upper Franconia Germany
 Upper Palatinate
 Weissenburg Germany
RTAllgau Alps
 Alpenvorland
 Northern Limestone Alps
 Franconia
 Lake Constance
 Main River
 Odenwald
 Palatinate
 Swabia
 Inn Valley
 Bavarian Alps
 Fichtelgebirge
 Isar Valley
 KTB
 Rhon Mountains
 Saale River
 Salzach River
 Schwarzenberg Germany
 Solnhofen Limestone
SNState in SE Germany.
Bavarian Alps  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Bavarian Alps
BTEurope
 .Alps
 ..Central Alps
 ...Bavarian Alps
RTBavaria Germany
 Tyrol Austria
 Northern Limestone Alps
 Upper Bavaria Germany
SNRange of the Central Alps along the Austro-German border. This term has multiple hierarchies. Indexed with name of country and province or state.
Bavarian Forest  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Germany
 ...Bavaria Germany
 ....Bavarian Forest
SNA subsidiary forested mountain range of the Bohemian Forest in E Bavaria.
Bavarian Massif  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Germany
 ...Bavaria Germany
 ....Bavarian Massif
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1981.
bavenite  search
BTsilicates
 .sheet silicates
 ..bavenite
RTaluminosilicates
Baxter County Arkansas  search
BTUnited States
 .Arkansas
 ..Baxter County Arkansas
Bay County Florida  search
BTUnited States
 .Florida
 ..Bay County Florida
Bay County Michigan  search
BTUnited States
 .Michigan
 ..Michigan Lower Peninsula
 ...Bay County Michigan
Bay of Bengal  search
BTIndian Ocean
 .Bay of Bengal
NTAndaman Basin
RTAndaman Sea
 Godavari River
 Krishna-Godavari Basin
 Bengal Fan
 Strait of Malacca
SNPart of Indian Ocean between India and the W coast of Burma.
Bay of Biscay  search
BTAtlantic Ocean
 .North Atlantic
 ..Bay of Biscay
NTCantabria Seamount
 Vilaine Bay
UFBiscay Bay
 Golfo de Vizcaya
 Gulf of Gascony
RTArcachon Basin
 Bay of Bourgneuf
 DSDP Site 118
 DSDP Site 402
 Gironde Estuary
 Groix Island
 Leg 48
 Vizcaya Spain
SNLarge inlet of the Atlantic Ocean between the W tip of Brittany and NW Spain.
Bay of Bourgneuf  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Bay of Bourgneuf
RTLoire-Atlantique France
 Bay of Biscay
 Vendee France
SNOn Bay of Biscay off Vendee and Loire-Atlantique departments.
Bay of Fundy  search
BTAtlantic Ocean
 .North Atlantic
 ..Bay of Fundy
RTCumberland Basin
 Minas Basin
SNInlet between Maine and New Brunswick on the W and Nova Scotia on the E.
Bay of Haifa  search
USEHaifa Bay
Bay of Islands  search
RTNewfoundland Island
 New Zealand
 Gulf of Saint Lawrence
 North Island
SNInlet of Gulf of Saint Lawrence off W coast of Newfoundland Island. Also occurs in NE coast of North Island, New Zealand. Indexed with North Island and New Zealand; OR Newfoundland Island as applicable.
Bay of Islands Ophiolite  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...lower Paleozoic
 ....Bay of Islands Ophiolite
UFBaie of Islands Ophiolite
RTNewfoundland Island
SNOrdovician? W Newfoundland. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel  search
USEBay of Saint-Michel
Bay of Naples  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Italy
 ...Campania Italy
 ....Bay of Naples
RTGulf of Pozzuoli
 Sorrento Peninsula
 Tyrrhenian Sea
SNInlet of Tyrrhenian Sea off the city of Naples.
Bay of Plenty  search
BTAustralasia
 .New Zealand
 ..Bay of Plenty
RTPacific Ocean
 North Island
 Edgecumbe earthquake 1987
SNLarge inlet off NE coast of North Island, New Zealand. Also Index North Island.
Bay of Saint Michel  search
USEBay of Saint-Michel
Bay of Saint-Michel  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Bay of Saint-Michel
UFBay of Mont-Saint-Michel
 Bay of Saint Michel
 Mont-Saint-Michel Bay
RTEnglish Channel
 Manche France
SNOn English Channel off SW corner of Normandy. Location of Mont Saint Michel.
Bay of the Seine  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Bay of the Seine
RTEnglish Channel
SNInlet of the English Channel off Normandy between Cotentin Peninsula on W to mouth of Seine River on E.
Bay Park New York  search
BTUnited States
 .New York
 ..Nassau County New York
 ...Bay Park New York
RTLong Island
SNTown on Long Island in SE New York.
Bayan Obo China  search
BTAsia
 .Far East
 ..China
 ...Inner Mongolia China
 ....Bayan Obo China
UFBayanobo China
SNInner Mongolia, central N China. Site of Bayan Obo Deposit, large iron-niobium-rare earths deposit. Also search Bayanobo and China.
Bayan-Nuurin-khotnor Basin  search
BTAsia
 .Far East
 ..Mongolia
 ...Bayan-Nuurin-khotnor Basin
RTHangay Mountains
SNPart of the Bayan-khongor fault valley, central Mongolia. Between the Hangay Mountains to the NE and the South Hangay Upland to the SW. Contained a pluvial lake during the Pleistocene. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
Bayanobo China  search
USEBayan Obo China
bayerite  search
BToxides
 .bayerite
RTaluminum oxides
 gibbsite
SNOften artificial.
Bayesian analysis  search
BTstatistical analysis
 .Bayesian analysis
RTanalysis
 data processing
 mathematical geology
 mathematical methods
 geostatistics
 discriminant analysis
 mathematical models
 variance analysis
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1985.
Bayfield County Wisconsin  search
BTUnited States
 .Wisconsin
 ..Bayfield County Wisconsin
SNN Wisconsin.
Baylor County Texas  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Baylor County Texas
SNSW of Wichita Falls in N Texas.
Bayn Dzak  search
BTAsia
 .Far East
 ..Mongolia
 ...Bayn Dzak
RTGobi Desert
SNRegion in the Gobi Desert.
Bayreuth Germany  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Germany
 ...Bavaria Germany
 ....Bayreuth Germany
SNCity in NE Bavaria.
bays  search
RTgeomorphology
 shorelines
 shore features
 embayments
 fjords
 inlets
Baza  search
SNNot a valid term for GeoRef. See Guadix-Baza Basin if applicable.
Bazhenov Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Jurassic
 ....Bazhenov Formation
RTRussian Federation
 Siberian Platform
 West Siberia
SNW Siberia and Siberian Platform. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Be  search
USEberyllium
Be-10  search
BTisotopes
 .radioactive isotopes
 ..Be-10
BTmetals
 .alkaline earth metals
 ..beryllium
 ...Be-10
RTBe-10/Be-9
SNThis term has multiple hierarchies.
Be-10/Be-9  search
BTisotopes
 .radioactive isotopes
 ..Be-10/Be-9
BTisotopes
 .stable isotopes
 ..Be-10/Be-9
BTmetals
 .alkaline earth metals
 ..beryllium
 ...Be-10/Be-9
UFBe-9/Be-10
RTisotope ratios
 Be-10
SNThis term has multiple hierarchies.
Be-7  search
BTisotopes
 .radioactive isotopes
 ..Be-7
BTmetals
 .alkaline earth metals
 ..beryllium
 ...Be-7
SNThis term has multiple hierarchies.
Be-9/Be-10  search
USEBe-10/Be-9
beach erosion  search
USElittoral erosion
beach nourishment  search
RTpreventive measures
 protection
 shorelines
 stabilization
 beaches
 erosion control
SNAlso search beaches OR shore features OR shorelines in combination with nourishment OR replenishment OR protection OR restoration. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.
beach placers  search
BTplacers
 .beach placers
RTmarine sediments
 stream placers
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1982.
beach profiles  search
RTsedimentation
 erosion
 geomorphology
 shorelines
 shore features
 beaches
 littoral erosion
 erosion control
 dynamics
 marine transport
 sea-level changes
 sediment transport
SNBefore 1995, also search beaches. Search with shorelines for engineering or geomorphological studies. Indexed with shore features if applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.
beach ridges  search
BTshore features
 .beach ridges
RTgeomorphology
 shorelines
 beaches
 cheniers
 marine terraces
beach rock  search
USEbeachrock
beaches  search
RTsedimentation
 paleoecology
 geomorphology
 lagoons
 barrier beaches
 shore features
 capes
 littoral erosion
 beach nourishment
 beach profiles
 beach ridges
 berms
 chenier plains
 coastal environment
 foredunes
 lacustrine features
 landform evolution
 raised beaches
 s
SNIndexed with shore features if applicable.
beachrock  search
BTsedimentary rocks
 .carbonate rocks
 ..beachrock
UFbeach rock
Beacon Supergroup  search
RTTriassic
 Jurassic
 Devonian
 Carboniferous
 Permian
 Antarctica
 Victoria Land
 Buckley Formation
 Permian-Triassic boundary
 Queen Maud Range
 Ross Dependency
 Ross Ice Shelf
 Taylor Group
SNIn Queen Maud Range along SW Ross Ice Shelf and in Victoria Land W of Ross Sea, both in Ross Dependency S of New Zealand. Indexed with ages as applicable.
Beacon Valley  search
RTAntarctica
 Victoria Land
 Ross Dependency
SNIn S Victoria Land near SE Ross Sea in Ross Dependency S of New Zealand. Indexed with Antarctica as applicable.
Beadle County South Dakota  search
BTUnited States
 .South Dakota
 ..Beadle County South Dakota
Bear Gulch Limestone Member  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Carboniferous
 ....Mississippian
 .....Bear Gulch Limestone Member
RTMontana
 Tyler Formation
SNIn Tyler Formation. Central N Montana.
Bear Island  search
UFBjornoya
RTArctic region
 Arctic Ocean
 Svalbard
 Barents Sea
SN240 miles N of Norway. Along with Spitsbergen forms Svalbard island group. Before 1981, broader terms were Barents Sea and Arctic Ocean. Also occurs in other locations. Indexed with Svalbard as applicable.
Bear Lake  search
RTRich County Utah
SNN Utah and Bear Lake County, SE Idaho. May also occur in other locations. Search in combination with state or region. Indexed with counties or regions as applicable.
Bear Lake County Idaho  search
BTUnited States
 .Idaho
 ..Bear Lake County Idaho
Bear Mountain  search
RTNew Mexico
 New York
 California
 Alaska
 South Dakota
SNOccurs in various locations. Indexed with appropriate counties or regions as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Bear Province  search
BTNorth America
 .Canadian Shield
 ..Bear Province
RTNorthwest Territories
SNStructural province of the Canadian Shield.
Bear River basin  search
RTIdaho
 Utah
 Wyoming
SNN Utah, SE Idaho and SW Wyoming. May also occur in other locations. Indexed with counties or regions as applicable.
Bear River Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Lower Cretaceous
 .....Bear River Formation
RTIdaho
 Utah
 Wyoming
SNSW Wyoming, SE Idaho and NE Utah. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Bear River Range  search
RTUnited States
 Idaho
 Utah
SNN Utah and SE Idaho. Indexed with counties or regions as applicable.
Bear Valley  search
RTCalifornia
SNCentral California. May also occur in other locations. Indexed with counties or regions as applicable.
Bear-Slave Operation  search
RTMackenzie District Northwest Territories
 Northwest Territories
 geochemical methods
 Great Bear Lake
 Great Slave Lake
 mineral exploration
SNGeochemical operation in Great Bear and Great Slave lakes region of Mackenzie District.
Beardmore Glacier  search
BTAntarctica
 .Beardmore Glacier
RTQueen Maud Range
 Ross Dependency
 Ross Ice Shelf
 Coalsack Bluff
 Fremouw Formation
 LEW 86010
 LEW 88516
 Lewis Cliff Meteorites
 Sirius Group
SNAt NW end of Queen Maud Range just off Ross Ice Shelf in Ross Dependency S of New Zealand.
bearing capacity  search
RTphysical properties
 soil mechanics
 California bearing ratio
 compaction
 foundations
 stress
Bearn  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Bearn
SNAn historical region of SW France.
Bearpaw Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Upper Cretaceous
 .....Bearpaw Formation
RTAlberta
 Wyoming
 Montana
 Edmonton Formation
 Montana Group
SNIn Montana Group. S Alberta; N, E, and S Montana; and Elk Basin region of central N Wyoming.
Beartooth Mountains  search
BTUnited States
 .U. S. Rocky Mountains
 ..Absaroka Range
 ...Beartooth Mountains
RTWyoming
 Montana
SNNE spur of Absaroka Range. This term has multiple hierarchies. Indexed with states as applicable.
Beas River  search
Beata Ridge  search
BTAtlantic Ocean
 .North Atlantic
 ..Caribbean Sea
 ...Beata Ridge
RTLeg 15
 DSDP Site 31
SNOff south central coast of Hispaniola.
Beatty Nevada  search
BTUnited States
 .Nevada
 ..Nye County Nevada
 ...Beatty Nevada
SNTown and site of underground nuclear explosions in S Nevada.
Beatty Ontario  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Ontario
 ...Cochrane District Ontario
 ....Beatty Ontario
SNUsed for the township in Cochrane District, N Ontario.
Beauce  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Beauce
RTEure-et-Loir France
 Loir-et-Cher France
SNAncient region in N central France. Indexed with departments as applicable.
Beauce County Quebec  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Quebec
 ...Beauce County Quebec
Beaufort County North Carolina  search
BTUnited States
 .North Carolina
 ..Beaufort County North Carolina
NTLee Creek Mine
RTPamlico River
SNOn the Atlantic coast in E North Carolina.
Beaufort County South Carolina  search
BTUnited States
 .South Carolina
 ..Beaufort County South Carolina
RTSaint Helena
 Port Royal Sound
SNOn Atlantic coast in extreme S South Carolina.
Beaufort Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Paleogene
 ....Paleocene
 .....Beaufort Formation
RTNorth Carolina
 Beaufort Group
SNUnderlies Castle Hayne Limestone or Yorktown Formation, or locally, an unnamed middle(?) Miocene unit; overlies Upper Cretaceous Peedee Formation. In E North Carolina. Search in combination with area.
Beaufort Group  search
RTTriassic
 Permian
 Karroo Supergroup
 South Africa
 Permian-Triassic boundary
 Beaufort Formation
 Botswana
 Namibia
 Zimbabwe
SNIn Karroo Supergroup. Permian and Triassic of South Africa. Before 1993, also search Beaufort Formation or Beaufort Series; AND South Africa. Indexed with ages as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Beaufort North Carolina  search
BTUnited States
 .North Carolina
 ..Carteret County North Carolina
 ...Beaufort North Carolina
SNCity in E North Carolina.
Beaufort Sea  search
BTArctic Ocean
 .Beaufort Sea
RTBeaufort-Mackenzie Basin
SNBetween N Alaska and the Arctic Archipelago of Canada.
Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin  search
UFMackenzie-Beaufort Basin
RTNorthern Alaska
 Northwest Territories
 Beaufort Sea
 Mackenzie Delta
SNOnshore and offshore basin roughly centered in the Mackenzie Delta region of Northwest Territories. Also search Beaufort Basin or Mackenzie Basin in combination with Beaufort Sea or Northwest Territories as applicable. Indexed with Northwest Territories o
Beauharnois County Quebec  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Quebec
 ...Beauharnois County Quebec
Beaumont Clay  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Quarternary
 ....Pleistocene
 .....Beaumont Clay
RTLouisiana
 Texas
SNE Texas and SW Louisiana. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Beaumont Texas  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Jefferson County Texas
 ...Beaumont Texas
SNCity in E Texas.
Beauregard Parish Louisiana  search
BTUnited States
 .Louisiana
 ..Beauregard Parish Louisiana
Beauvoir Granite  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Beauvoir Granite
RTAllier France
 Central Massif
SNComplex in Central Massif, central France. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.
Beaver County Oklahoma  search
BTUnited States
 .Oklahoma
 ..Beaver County Oklahoma
RTOklahoma Panhandle
SNExtreme NW Oklahoma.
Beaver County Pennsylvania  search
BTUnited States
 .Pennsylvania
 ..Beaver County Pennsylvania
SNW Pennsylvania.
Beaver County Utah  search
BTUnited States
 .Utah
 ..Beaver County Utah
NTMineral Mountains
 Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA
RTBlack Mountains
 Tushar Mountains
 Wah Wah Mountains
SNSW Utah.
Beaver Creek  search
RTWyoming
 Wind River
SNTwo Beaver creeks. One in NE and one in W central Wyoming. May also occur in other locations. Indexed with counties or regions as applicable.
Beaver Lake  search
RTGarden County Nebraska
SNGarden County in W Nebraska panhandle. May also occur in other locations. Indexed with counties or regions as applicable.
Beaver River  search
RTOntario
 Utah
 Yukon Territory
SNExtreme SE Yukon Territory. Also in other locations, including SW Utah, Ontario, and New York. Search in combination with state or region as applicable. Indexed with counties or regions as applicable.
Beaverhead County Montana  search
BTUnited States
 .Montana
 ..Beaverhead County Montana
NTTendoy Range
RTGravelly Range
 Pioneer Mountains
SNExtreme SW Montana.
Beaverhead Formation  search
RTUpper Cretaceous
 Paleocene
 Eocene
 Idaho
 Montana
 K-T boundary
SNUpper Cretaceous, Paleocene and Eocene. Unconformably overlies Kootenay Formation, Dinwoody Formation, Thaynes Formation, Phosphoria Formation, Quadrant Quartzite and Madison Group. E central Idaho and SW Montana. Indexed with ages as applicable.
Beaverhead Mountains  search
BTUnited States
 .U. S. Rocky Mountains
 ..Bitterroot Range
 ...Beaverhead Mountains
RTIdaho
 Montana
SNS part of Bitterroot Range, SE Idaho and SW Montana. This term has multiple hierarchies. Indexed with counties or states as applicable.
Beaverhill Lake Group  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Devonian
 ....Beaverhill Lake Group
RTMiddle Devonian
 Upper Devonian
 Alberta
 North Dakota
 Swan Hills Formation
SNAlberta. May also occur in other locations. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.
Beaverlodge  search
BTCanada
 .Western Canada
 ..Saskatchewan
 ...Beaverlodge
SNLake N of Lake Athabasca.
Bechar Algeria  search
BTAfrica
 .North Africa
 ..Algeria
 ...Bechar Algeria
SNTown about 440 miles SW of Algiers.
Bechuanaland  search
USEBotswana
Becker County Minnesota  search
BTUnited States
 .Minnesota
 ..Becker County Minnesota
Beckham County Oklahoma  search
BTUnited States
 .Oklahoma
 ..Beckham County Oklahoma
Becraft Mountain  search
BTUnited States
 .New York
 ..Columbia County New York
 ...Becraft Mountain
SNColumbia County in E New York.
bed forms  search
USEbedforms
bed load  search
USEbedload
bed-load  search
USEbedload
Bedarieux France  search
BTrault France
 .Bedarieux France
SNTown in S France.
bedded volcano  search
USEstratovolcanoes
bedding  search
BTsedimentary structures
 .planar bedding structures
 ..bedding
RTbedding plane irregularities
 fractures
 primary structures
 columnar joints
 cross-bedding
 flaser bedding
 graded bedding
 laminations
 lineation
 massive bedding
 planar deformation features
 rhythmic bedding
 stratification
 strike
SNAlso index primary structures if applicable.
bedding faults  search
BTfaults
 .bedding faults
RTbedding joints
 duplexes
SNBefore 1978, search faults AND bedding.
bedding joints  search
RTbedding faults
 joints
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1981.
bedding plane irregularities  search
BTsedimentary structures
 .bedding plane irregularities
NTantidunes
 chevron marks
 current markings
 dune structures
 flute casts
 fossil ice wedges
 frost features
 groove casts
 grooves
 megaripples
 mud lumps
 mudcracks
 parting lineation
 ripple marks
 sand ridges
 sand waves
 scour casts
 scour marks
 striations
 tool marks
RTdunes
 bars
 bedding
 casts
 imbrication
 load casts
 mounds
 sand bodies
 sole marks
bedding structures, planar  search
USEplanar bedding structures
bedding-plane slip  search
USEflexural-slip
Bedford County Pennsylvania  search
BTUnited States
 .Pennsylvania
 ..Bedford County Pennsylvania
NTWoodbury Pennsylvania
SNS Pennsylvania.
Bedford County Tennessee  search
BTUnited States
 .Tennessee
 ..Bedford County Tennessee
SNCentral Tennessee.
Bedford County Virginia  search
BTUnited States
 .Virginia
 ..Bedford County Virginia
SNSW central Virginia. Also search Bedford Virginia if applicable.
Bedford Shale  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Bedford Shale
RTDevonian
 Mississippian
 Kentucky
 Ohio
 Pennsylvania
SNDevonian and Mississippian(?): NE Kentucky, E Ohio, and SW Pennsylvania. Indexed with ages as applicable.
Bedfordshire England  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..United Kingdom
 ...Great Britain
 ....England
 .....Bedfordshire England
SNCounty in SE England.
bedforms  search
UFbed forms
RTgeomorphology
 fluvial features
 hydrology
 rivers and streams
 lacustrine features
bedload  search
UFbed load
 bed-load
 bottom load
 sediment budget
 sediment load
RTsedimentation
 sediments
 streams
 gravel-bed streams
 stream transport
bedrock  search
RTsoils
 rocks
 outcrops
SNUsed as a general term.
beds, convoluted  search
USEconvoluted beds
beds, key  search
USEkey beds
beds, marker  search
USEmarker beds
Bee County Texas  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Bee County Texas
Beech Creek Limestone Member  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Carboniferous
 ....Mississippian
 .....Upper Mississippian
 ......Chesterian
 .......Beech Creek Limestone Member
RTKentucky
 Indiana
 Golconda Formation
SNOf Golconda Formation. SW Indiana and N central Kentucky. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Beekmantown Group  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Ordovician
 ....Lower Ordovician
 .....Beekmantown Group
RTOntario
 Quebec
 Virginia
 Pennsylvania
 Vermont
 New York
 Maryland
 Tennessee
 Rose Run Sandstone
SNFrom SE Canada to Virginia. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Beemerville New Jersey  search
BTUnited States
 .New Jersey
 ..Sussex County New Jersey
 ...Beemerville New Jersey
SNVillage in extreme N New Jersey.
Beer Sheba Israel  search
USEBeer Sheva Israel
Beer Sheva Israel  search
BTAsia
 .Middle East
 ..Israel
 ...Beer Sheva Israel
UFBeer Sheba Israel
 Beersheba Israel
RTNegev
SNCity and region, S Israel.
Beerenberg  search
BTArctic region
 .Jan Mayen
 ..Beerenberg
RTvolcanoes
 Arctic Ocean
SNExtinct volcano on Norway's Jan Mayen Island.
Beersheba Israel  search
USEBeer Sheva Israel
Behar India  search
USEBihar India
behavior  search
RTproperties
 reactivity
 adaptive radiation
 biologic evolution
 ecology
 paleoecology
SNUsed as a general term applicable to a variety of disciplines.
bei China  search
NTBeijing China
 Jianghan Basin
 Jixian China
 Tianjin China
 Yanshan Range
beidellite  search
BTsilicates
 .sheet silicates
 ..clay minerals
 ...beidellite
RTmontmorillonite
Beijing China  search
BTbei China
 .Beijing China
RTXingtai earthquake 1966
SNIndependent municipality and capital of China, including surrounding counties. Located in Hebei. Formerly called Peking.
Beil Limestone Member  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Carboniferous
 ....Pennsylvanian
 .....Upper Pennsylvanian
 ......Virgilian
 .......Beil Limestone Member
RTIowa
 Nebraska
 Kansas
 Lecompton Limestone
SNOf Lecompton Limestone. SW Iowa, E Kansas, SE Nebraska.
Beira Baixa  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Iberian Peninsula
 ...Portugal
 ....Beira Baixa
SNFormer province in N central Portugal.
Beirut Lebanon  search
BTAsia
 .Middle East
 ..Lebanon
 ...Beirut Lebanon
SNCity on the Mediterranean Sea.
Beius Basin  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Romania
 ...Transylvania
 ....Beius Basin
RTBihor Romania
SNBihor County in W Transylvania.
Bek-Budi Uzbekistan  search
USEKarshi Uzbekistan
Belarus  search
BTEurope
 .Belarus
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Belarus
NTBrest Belarus
 Byelorussian Massif
 Kletno Belarus
 Mezhrechye Belarus
 Minsk Belarus
 Mogilev Belarus
 Orsha Belarus
 Ostashkovichi Belarus
 Rechitsa Belarus
 Starobin Belarus
 Ustron Belarus
 Vyshkovo Belarus
 Zhitkovichi Belarus
UFBelorussia
 Byelorussia
 White Russia
RTBrest Basin
 Bug region
 Bug River
 Dnieper Basin
 Dnieper River
 Dvina River
 European Platform
 Neman River basin
 Polesye
 Pripet Basin
 Russian Plain
SNFormerly the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. This term has multiple hierarchies. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Belau  search
USEPalau
Belaya Gora Russian Federation  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Russian Federation
 ..Belaya Gora Russian Federation
RTArkhangelsk Russian Federation
SNVillage S of Arkhangelsk in Arkhangelsk Oblast in NW Russian Federation. Before 1993, Belaya Gora Russian Republic was also used. May also occur in other locations. Indexed with regions as applicable.
Belcha  search
Belchatow Mine  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Poland
 ...Belchatow Mine
RTmines
 lignite
 Belchatow Poland
 Lodz Poland
SNLignite mine, Piotrkow Province, central Poland. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Belchatow Poland  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Poland
 ...Belchatow Poland
RTBelchatow Mine
 Lodz Poland
SNTown in Piotrkow Province, central Poland. Use Belchatow Mine for the lignite mine.
Belcher Islands  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Belcher Islands
BTCanada
 .Northwest Territories
 ..Keewatin District Northwest Territories
 ...Belcher Islands
RTHudson Bay
SNGroup in SE Hudson Bay. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Belemnitidae  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Mollusca
 ..Cephalopoda
 ...Dibranchiata
 ....Belemnoidea
 .....Belemnitidae
NTBelemnopsis
SNFamily.
Belemnoidea  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Mollusca
 ..Cephalopoda
 ...Dibranchiata
 ....Belemnoidea
NTBelemnitidae
Belemnopsis  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Mollusca
 ..Cephalopoda
 ...Dibranchiata
 ....Belemnoidea
 .....Belemnitidae
 ......Belemnopsis
SNGenus.
Belfast Northern Ireland  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..United Kingdom
 ...Northern Ireland
 ....Belfast Northern Ireland
SNTraditional county in W Northern Ireland. Includes the smaller administrative region of the same name adopted after 1973.
Belfort France  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Belfort France
SNDepartment. Territore de Belfort in NE France.
Belgaum India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Karnataka India
 ....Belgaum India
SNTown and district in W Karnataka, S India.
Belgian Congo  search
USECongo Democratic Republic
Belgica Meteorites  search
BTmeteorites
 .Belgica Meteorites
RTAntarctica
 CM chondrites
SNAlso search Belgica Meteorite, Belgica-7904, B7904, or B-7904. Also index specific meteorite type. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.
Belgium  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..Belgium
NTAntwerp Belgium
 Brabant Belgium
 Brabant Massif
 Hainaut Belgium
 Liege Belgium
 Limburg Belgium
 Luxembourg Belgium
 Mons Basin
 Namur Belgium
RTRhenish Schiefergebirge
 European Platform
 Boom Clay
 Campine
 Grimmertingen
 Liege earthquake 1983
 Luxembourg Sandstone
 Meuse River
 Meuse Valley
 North Sea Coast
 North Sea region
 Scheldt River
 Stavelot-Venn Massif
 University of Louvain
Belgorod Russian Federation  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Russian Federation
 ..Belgorod Russian Federation
BTEurope
 .Belgorod Russian Federation
SNOblast including the city N of Kharkov in SW Russian Federation. Before 1993, Belgorod Russian Republic was also used. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Belgrade Yugoslavia  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Yugoslavia
 ...Serbia
 ....Belgrade Yugoslavia
UFBeograd Yugoslavia
SNCity on Danube River in N central Serbia.
Beli Isvor Bulgaria  search
USEBeli Izvor Bulgaria
Beli Izvor Bulgaria  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Bulgaria
 ...Beli Izvor Bulgaria
UFBeli Isvor Bulgaria
SNVillage in E Bulgaria.
Belingwe greenstone belt  search
BTAfrica
 .Southern Africa
 ..Zimbabwe
 ...Belingwe greenstone belt
RTCheshire Formation
SNZimbabwe (formerly Rhodesian) Craton. Includes the Archean Mtshingwe Group, and the Manjeri Formation, Reliance Formation, Zeederbergs Formation, and Cheshire Formation which are variously included in the Ngezi Group. Before 1998, also search Belingwe Bel
Belitung  search
USEBilliton
Belize  search
BTCentral America
 .Belize
NTMaya Mountains
UFBritish Honduras
RTYucatan Peninsula
SNFormerly British Honduras.
Beljak Austria  search
USEVillach Austria
Belknap County New Hampshire  search
BTw Hampshire
 .Belknap County New Hampshire
Bell Canyon Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Permian
 ....Guadalupian
 .....Bell Canyon Formation
RTNew Mexico
 Texas
 Delaware Mountain Group
SNIn Delaware Mountain Group. Includes Hegler Limestone, Pinery Limestone, Radar Limestone, Lamar Limestone and McCombs Limestone members. S New Mexico, and W Texas.
Bell County Kentucky  search
BTUnited States
 .Kentucky
 ..Bell County Kentucky
SNExtreme SE Kentucky.
Bell County Texas  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Bell County Texas
RTEdwards Aquifer
SNCentral Texas.
Bell Cr  search
Bell Creek Field  search
RToil and gas fields
 Montana
 Carter County Montana
 Powder River County Montana
SNOil and gas field. Indexed with counties or regions as applicable.
Bell Island  search
RTNewfoundland Island
 Alaska
SNIn Conception Bay W of Saint John's Newfoundland. Also in other locations. Indexed with province or region as applicable.
Bellary India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Karnataka India
 ....Bellary India
SNTown in Karnataka, S central India.
Belle Fourche Shale  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Upper Cretaceous
 .....Belle Fourche Shale
RTCody Shale
 Colorado Group
 Graneros Shale
SNIn Colorado Group or Cody Shale. In Wyoming, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.
Belle Isle  search
RTAtchafalaya Bay
 Saint Mary Parish Louisiana
 Labrador
 Newfoundland
SNIsland constituting a salt dome on N shore of Atchafalaya Bay in Saint Mary Parish in S Louisiana. Also island off Labrador in Newfoundland. Indexed with state and parish or Newfoundland as applicable.
Bellechasse County Quebec  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Quebec
 ...Bellechasse County Quebec
Belledonne Massif  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Dauphine Alps
 ....Belledonne Massif
UFBelledonne Mountain Range
 Belledonne Range
SNPart of mountain range in SE France. Also search Belledonne. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Belledonne Mountain Range  search
USEBelledonne Massif
Belledonne Range  search
USEBelledonne Massif
Bellerophontina  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Mollusca
 ..Gastropoda
 ...Archaeogastropoda
 ....Bellerophontina
Bellingshausen Sea  search
BTAntarctic Ocean
 .Bellingshausen Sea
RTBransfield Strait
SNInlet of S Pacific part of Antarctic Ocean extending westward from Alexander Island off the W coast of Antarctic Peninsula to Thurston Island.
Belluno Italy  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Italy
 ...Veneto Italy
 ....Belluno Italy
NTAlpago Basin
SNTown and province in N Veneto.
Belly River Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Upper Cretaceous
 .....Belly River Formation
RTAlberta
 Saskatchewan
 Oldman Formation
SNHas been considered equivalent to Two Medicine Formation and Virgelle Sandstone of Blackfoot Indian Reservation, N Montana, and Judith River Formation, Claggett Formation, and Eagle Sandstone of central Montana.
Belmont County Ohio  search
BTUnited States
 .Ohio
 ..Belmont County Ohio
Beloc Haiti  search
BTiti
 .Beloc Haiti
SNSouthern Peninsula.
Belomorsk Russian Federation  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Russian Federation
 ..Karelia Russian Federation
 ...Belomorsk Russian Federation
UFSoroka Russian Federation
SNTown in former Karelian ASSR in NW Russian Federation. Before 1993, Belomorsk Russian Republic was also used. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Belorussia  search
USEBelarus
Belozerka Ukraine  search
BTEurope
 .Ukraine
 ..Belozerka Ukraine
SNTown in Kherson Oblast N of the Crimea. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Belozero Russian Federation  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Russian Federation
 ..Arkhangelsk Russian Federation
 ...Belozero Russian Federation
SNVillage W of Arkhangelsk in Arkhangelsk Oblast. Before 1993, Belozero Russian Republic was also used. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Belsk Poland  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Poland
 ...Bialystok Poland
 ....Belsk Poland
UFBielsk Poland
 Bielsk Podlaski Poland
SNTown in in NE Poland.
Belt Basin  search
BTNorth America
 .Belt Basin
RTIdaho
 Montana
 Washington
 British Columbia
SNW Montana, N Idaho, NE Washington and S British Columbia.
Belt Sup  search
Belt Supergroup  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Precambrian
 ..Proterozoic
 ...Mesoproterozoic
 ....Belt Supergroup
RTIdaho
 Montana
 British Columbia
 Altyn Limestone
 Aldridge Formation
 Ravalli Group
 Bonner Formation
 Disturbed Belt
 Empire Formation
 Helena Formation
 Missoula Group
 Mount Shields Formation
 Newland Limestone
 Prichard Formation
 Revett Quartzite
 Saint Regis Form
SNComprises Piegan Group, Missoula Group, and Ravalli Group.
Beltana Australia  search
BTAustralasia
 .Australia
 ..South Australia
 ...Beltana Australia
SNVillage and mining center in E central South Australia.
Beltrami County Minnesota  search
BTUnited States
 .Minnesota
 ..Beltrami County Minnesota
NTBemidji Minnesota
RTRed Lake
SNNW Minnesota.
belts  search
SNA valid term through 1978. After 1978, see specific terms, e.g. fold belts, metamorphic belts, intracontinental belts, orogenic belts, terranes, etc.
belts, fold  search
USEfold belts
belts, greenstone  search
USEgreenstone belts
belts, metamorphic  search
USEmetamorphic belts
belts, mobile  search
USEmobile belts
belts, schist  search
USEschist belts
belts, volcanic  search
USEvolcanic belts
Bembridge Marls  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Paleogene
 ....Oligocene
 .....Bembridge Marls
RTEngland
 United Kingdom
 English Channel
 Isle of Wight England
SNDefined to include Bembridge Oyster Beds, Lower Bembridge Marls, and Upper Bembridge Marls. Isle of Wight in English Channel S of Southampton.
Bemidji Minnesota  search
BTUnited States
 .Minnesota
 ..Beltrami County Minnesota
 ...Bemidji Minnesota
SNCity, N central Minnesota.
Ben Hill County Georgia  search
BTUnited States
 .Georgia
 ..Ben Hill County Georgia
benches  search
RTgeomorphology
 fluvial features
 erosion features
 shore features
 littoral erosion
 marine terraces
 raised beaches
 mesas
 terraces
 wave-cut platforms
SNFor geomorphologic studies, index type of feature.
beneficiation  search
RTmineral deposits, genesis
 methods
 production
 flotation
 optimization
 purification
SNUsed for commodity production technology.
Benewah County Idaho  search
BTUnited States
 .Idaho
 ..Benewah County Idaho
Bengal  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..Bengal
UFBengal Basin
RTIndia
 West Bengal India
 Bangladesh
 Tripura India
SNA region and former Indian province. Indexed with Bangladesh and Indian states as applicable.
Bengal Basin  search
USEBengal
Bengal Fan  search
BTIndian Ocean
 .Bengal Fan
RTBay of Bengal
 DSDP Site 218
 Leg 116
 ODP Site 717
 ODP Site 718
 ODP Site 719
SNSubmarine fan extending from the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta system south and west approximately to the equator. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Bengal Islands  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Bengal Islands
NTAndaman Islands
 Nicobar Islands
RTIndian Ocean Islands
SNIncludes Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
Benham Kentucky  search
BTrlan County Kentucky
 .Benham Kentucky
SNVillage in SE Kentucky.
Beni Bouchera  search
BTAfrica
 .North Africa
 ..Morocco
 ...Rif
 ....Beni Bouchera
SNRegion in the Rif in NE Morocco.
Benin  search
BTAfrica
 .West Africa
 ..Benin
UFDahomey
RTImo Shale
 Mali-Niger Syneclise
 Niger River
 Niger Valley
SNWas established in 1960 as Dahomey.
Benioff seismic zone  search
USEBenioff zone
Benioff zone  search
UFBenioff seismic zone
 Wadati zone
 Wadati-Benioff Zone
 zone, Benioff
RTseismology
 plate tectonics
 sea-floor spreading
 plates
 subduction zones
 lithosphere
 subduction
 trenches
benmoreite  search
BTigneous rocks
 .volcanic rocks
 ..benmoreite
RTtrachybasalts
SNSilica-saturated to undersaturated igneous rock intermediate in composition between mugearite and trachyte.
Bennett County South Dakota  search
BTUnited States
 .South Dakota
 ..Bennett County South Dakota
Bennettitales  search
BTPlantae
 .Spermatophyta
 ..Gymnospermae
 ...Bennettitales
RTPtilophyllum
Bennington County Vermont  search
BTUnited States
 .Vermont
 ..Bennington County Vermont
Benoue Valley  search
USEBenue Valley
Benson County North Dakota  search
BTUnited States
 .North Dakota
 ..Benson County North Dakota
Benson Mines  search
BTUnited States
 .New York
 ..Benson Mines
RTmines
 iron ores
 Saint Lawrence County New York
SNN New York. Also search Benson AND New York. Indexed with commodity and counties as applicable.
Bent  search
Bent County Colorado  search
BTUnited States
 .Colorado
 ..Bent County Colorado
bentazon  search
BTpesticides
 .herbicides
 ..bentazon
RTagrochemicals
 pollutants
 toxic materials
benthic taxa  search
USEbenthonic taxa
benthonic  search
SNA valid index term through 1977. After 1977, use benthonic taxa.
benthonic taxa  search
UFbenthic taxa
 taxa, benthonic
RTbottom features
 ecology
 paleoecology
 fossils
 marine geology
SNBefore 1978, search benthonic; benthic.
Benton County Arkansas  search
BTUnited States
 .Arkansas
 ..Benton County Arkansas
SNExtreme NW Arkansas.
Benton County Indiana  search
BTIndiana
 .Benton County Indiana
SNW Indiana.
Benton County Iowa  search
BTUnited States
 .Iowa
 ..Benton County Iowa
SNE central Iowa.
Benton County Minnesota  search
BTUnited States
 .Minnesota
 ..Benton County Minnesota
SNCentral Minnesota.
Benton County Mississippi  search
BTUnited States
 .Mississippi
 ..Benton County Mississippi
SNN Mississippi.
Benton County Missouri  search
BTUnited States
 .Missouri
 ..Benton County Missouri
SNCentral Missouri.
Benton County Oregon  search
BTUnited States
 .Oregon
 ..Benton County Oregon
SNW Oregon.
Benton County Tennessee  search
BTUnited States
 .Tennessee
 ..Benton County Tennessee
SNW Tennessee.
Benton County Washington  search
BTUnited States
 .Washington
 ..Benton County Washington
NTRichland Washington
RTHanford Reservation
 Rattlesnake Hills
SNOn Oregon line in S Washington.
Benton Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Benton Formation
RTNew Mexico
 Wyoming
 Montana
 Colorado
 Nebraska
 Minnesota
 Kansas
 South Dakota
 Colorado Group
 Graneros Shale
 Carlile Shale
 Codell Sandstone Member
 Greenhorn Limestone
SNIn Colorado Group. Comprising Graneros Shale, Greenhorn Limestone and Carlile Shale as members. Contains Codell Sandstone Member. E Colorado, South Dakota, Kansas, S Minnesota, SE Montana, Nebraska, NE New Mexico, E Wyoming.
Benton Uplift  search
BTUnited States
 .Benton Uplift
RTOklahoma
 Arkansas
 Ouachita Mountains
 Ouachita Orogeny
SNW Arkansas and SE Oklahoma. Indexed with states as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
bentonite  search
BTsedimentary rocks
 .clastic rocks
 ..bentonite
UFamargosite
 mineral soap
 soap clay
 volcanic clay
RTclay mineralogy
 pyroclastics
 clay minerals
 clastic sediments
 clay
 volcanic ash
 tuff
 sheet silicates
 terrigenous materials
 bentonite deposits
 K-bentonite
 metabentonite
SNAs of 1981, use bentonite deposits for bentonite as a commodity.
bentonite deposits  search
RTbentonite
 clays
SNCommodity. See List C.
Benue Trough  search
USEBenue Valley
Benue Valley  search
BTAfrica
 .West Africa
 ..Benue Valley
UFBenoue Valley
 Benue Trough
 Binue Valley
RTCameroon
 Nigeria
 Asu River Group
SNRiver valley. Indexed with countries as applicable.
Benxi Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Carboniferous
 ....Benxi Formation
RTChina
 Henan China
 Shanxi China
SNIn Henan and Shanxi provinces. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
benzene  search
BTorganic compounds
 .hydrocarbons
 ..aromatic hydrocarbons
 ...benzene
RTchlorobenzene
 hexachlorobenzene
 petroleum
 BTEX
 ethylbenzene
 pyrene
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1985.
Benzie County Michigan  search
BTUnited States
 .Michigan
 ..Michigan Lower Peninsula
 ...Benzie County Michigan
Beograd Yugoslavia  search
USEBelgrade Yugoslavia
Beppu Japan  search
BTAsia
 .Far East
 ..Japan
 ...Kyushu
 ....Oita Japan
 .....Beppu Japan
RTgeothermal fields
SNCity and geothermal area in NE Kyushu.
beraunite  search
BTphosphates
 .beraunite
Berchtesgaden Germany  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Germany
 ...Bavaria Germany
 ....Upper Bavaria Germany
 .....Berchtesgaden Germany
SNTown in extreme SE Bavaria.
Berea S  search
Berea Sandstone  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Berea Sandstone
RTDevonian
 Mississippian
 Kentucky
 Ohio
 Pennsylvania
 West Virginia
 Michigan
SNDevonian or Mississippian. NE Kentucky, S Michigan, Ohio, W Pennsylvania, and N West Virginia.
Beregovo Ukraine  search
BTEurope
 .Ukraine
 ..Transcarpathia Ukraine
 ...Beregovo Ukraine
SNTown in Transcarpathian Oblast in extreme SW Ukraine. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Beresford Lake  search
BTCanada
 .Western Canada
 ..Manitoba
 ...Beresford Lake
SNIn SW Manitoba.
beresite  search
BTmetamorphic rocks
 .metasomatic rocks
 ..greisen
 ...beresite
RTgranites
 granodiorites
 hypabyssal rocks
 quartz porphyry
berg crystal  search
USEquartz crystal
Bergamo Italy  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Italy
 ...Lombardy Italy
 ....Bergamo Italy
SNProvince and city in central Lombardy.
Bergell Massif  search
BTEurope
 .Bergell Massif
RTLombardy Italy
 Graubunden Switzerland
SNIn SE Switzerland and neighboring N Italy. Indexed with canton or region as applicable.
Bergen County New Jersey  search
BTUnited States
 .New Jersey
 ..Bergen County New Jersey
SNNE New Jersey.
Bergen Norway  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..Scandinavia
 ...Norway
 ....Bergen Norway
SNCity on the North Sea in SW Norway.
Bergisch Gladbach Germany  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Germany
 ...North Rhine-Westphalia Germany
 ....Bergisch Gladbach Germany
SNCity in SW central North Rhine-Westphalia.
Bergisches Land  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Germany
 ...North Rhine-Westphalia Germany
 ....Bergisches Land
RTRhine River
SNRegion on right bank of the Rhine River.
Bergslagen  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..Scandinavia
 ...Sweden
 ....Bergslagen
RTmines
 metal ores
 Orebro Sweden
 Varmland Sweden
SNWell-known metals mining district (bergslag) in counties of Kopparberg, Orebro, Varmland, and Vastmanland in central Sweden. Also index county if applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.
Bergstrasse  search
BTsse Germany
 .Bergstrasse
RTOdenwald
SNName applied to the W slope of the Odenwald hills of SW Germany.
Berici Hills  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Italy
 ...Veneto Italy
 ....Vicenza Italy
 .....Berici Hills
SNRange of volcanic hills in Vicenza Province in W central Veneto.
Bering Glacier  search
BTUnited States
 .Alaska
 ..Southern Alaska
 ...Bering Glacier
RTSaint Elias Mountains
SNSaint Elias Range glacier system, W and NW of Cape Yakataga, drains into Gulf of Alaska.
Bering land bridge  search
USEBeringia
Bering Sea  search
BTPacific Ocean
 .North Pacific
 ..Bering Sea
NTBowers Ridge
 Bristol Bay
 Navarin Basin
 Norton Sound
RTAleutian Islands
 DSDP Site 189
 DSDP Site 187
 Leg 19
 North Atlantic Deep Water
 Bering Strait
 Beringia
 DSDP Site 184
 DSDP Site 185
 DSDP Site 190
 DSDP Site 191
 Kaltag Fault
 Karaginskiy Island
 Komandorski Islands
 Norton Basin
 Nunivak Island
 Saint George Basin
SNBetween NE Siberia and Alaska with the Aleutian Islands on the S and Bering Strait on the N.
Bering Strait  search
RTBering Sea
 Beringia
 Chukchi Sea
 Northwest Pacific
SNConnects Chukchi Sea and Bering Sea between Asia and North America. Indexed with Chukchi Sea and/or Bering Sea if applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
Beringia  search
UFBering land bridge
RTAsia
 North America
 Bering Sea
 Siberia
 Bering Strait
 Chukchi Sea
SNNE Siberia, NW North America, and intervening continental shelves. Early man entered North America via this region. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
Berkeley California  search
BTUnited States
 .California
 ..Alameda County California
 ...Berkeley California
RTSan Francisco Bay
SNCity in W Central California, across the San Francisco Bay from San Francisco.
Berkeley County South Carolina  search
BTUnited States
 .South Carolina
 ..Berkeley County South Carolina
SNSE South Carolina.
Berkeley County West Virginia  search
BTUnited States
 .West Virginia
 ..Berkeley County West Virginia
SNIn eastern panhandle of West Virginia.
berkelium  search
BTmetals
 .actinides
 ..berkelium
UFBk
SNChemical element.
Berks County Pennsylvania  search
BTUnited States
 .Pennsylvania
 ..Berks County Pennsylvania
NTReading Pennsylvania
SNSE central Pennsylvania.
Berkshire Anticlinorium  search
USEBerkshire Hills
Berkshire County Massachusetts  search
BTUnited States
 .Massachusetts
 ..Berkshire County Massachusetts
NTBerkshire Hills
SNW Massachusetts.
Berkshire England  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..United Kingdom
 ...Great Britain
 ....England
 .....Berkshire England
RTOxfordshire England
SNCounty in S England. As of 1975, some of its former territory is included in Oxfordshire.
Berkshire Highlands  search
USEBerkshire Hills
Berkshire Hills  search
BTUnited States
 .Massachusetts
 ..Berkshire County Massachusetts
 ...Berkshire Hills
UFBerkshire Anticlinorium
 Berkshire Highlands
 Berkshire Massif
 Berkshires
RTAppalachians
SNHills in Berkshire County in W Massachusetts. Indexed with mountain range as applicable.
Berkshire Massif  search
USEBerkshire Hills
Berkshires  search
USEBerkshire Hills
Berlin Germany  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Germany
 ...Brandenburg Germany
 ....Berlin Germany
RTNorth German Plain
SNCity partitioned into East Berlin and West Berlin from 1945-1989. Also search East Berlin or West Berlin.
berms  search
RTembankments
 slope stability
 engineering geology
 geomorphology
 erosion features
 shorelines
 beaches
 retaining walls
SNType of bench or shelf. Term used in relation to engineering geology and geomorphology. Indexed with shore features or erosion features if applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Bermuda  search
BTAtlantic Ocean Islands
 .Bermuda
NTHarrington Sound
UFBermuda Island
 Bermudas
RTBermuda Platform
 Bermuda Rise
SNBritish colony comprising over 300 coral islands about 640 miles ESE of Cape Hatteras. Atlantic Ocean Islands.
Bermuda Island  search
USEBermuda
Bermuda Platform  search
BTAtlantic Ocean
 .North Atlantic
 ..Bermuda Rise
 ...Bermuda Platform
RTBermuda
SNPart of Bermuda Rise.
Bermuda Rise  search
BTAtlantic Ocean
 .North Atlantic
 ..Bermuda Rise
NTBermuda Platform
RTBermuda
 DSDP Site 386
 DSDP Site 387
 DSDP Site 417
 DSDP Site 418
 DSDP Site 6
 DSDP Site 7
 DSDP Site 9
 Leg 102
 Leg 172
 Leg 43
 Leg 51
 Leg 52
 Leg 53
 ODP Site 1063
SNRuns in SW-NE direction to the west of Bermuda.
Bermudas  search
USEBermuda
Bern Switzerland  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Switzerland
 ...Bern Switzerland
NTBiel Lake
UFBerne Switzerland
RTBernese Alps
 Grindelwald
SNCanton in W central Switzerland.
Bernalillo County New Mexico  search
BTUnited States
 .New Mexico
 ..Bernalillo County New Mexico
NTAlbuquerque New Mexico
 Tijeras Canyon
RTRio Puerco
 Manzano Mountains
SNCentral New Mexico.
berndtite  search
BTsulfides
 .berndtite
Berne Switzerland  search
USEBern Switzerland
Bernese Alps  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Switzerland
 ...Bernese Alps
BTEurope
 .Alps
 ..Central Alps
 ...Bernese Alps
UFBernese Oberland
RTValais Switzerland
 Bern Switzerland
 Grindelwald
 Uri Switzerland
SNN division of Central Alps in Bern and Valais cantons. This term has multiple hierarchies. Indexed with cantons as applicable.
Bernese Oberland  search
USEBernese Alps
Bernic Lake  search
BTCanada
 .Western Canada
 ..Manitoba
 ...Bernic Lake
bernstein  search
USEamber
Berounka System  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Czech Republic
 ...Berounka System
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1981.
Berriasian  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Lower Cretaceous
 .....Berriasian
RTNeocomian
 Toro Formation
SNEurope. Lowermost Lower Cretaceous, above Portlandian (Jurassic), below Valanginian.
Berrien County Georgia  search
BTUnited States
 .Georgia
 ..Berrien County Georgia
SNS Georgia.
Berrien County Michigan  search
BTUnited States
 .Michigan
 ..Michigan Lower Peninsula
 ...Berrien County Michigan
SNExtreme SW Michigan.
berryite  search
BTsulfosalts
 .sulfobismuthites
 ..berryite
Berthier County Quebec  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Quebec
 ...Berthier County Quebec
berthierine  search
BTsilicates
 .sheet silicates
 ..berthierine
RTaluminosilicates
 chamosite
berthonite  search
USEbournonite
Bertie County North Carolina  search
BTUnited States
 .North Carolina
 ..Bertie County North Carolina
bertrandite  search
BTsilicates
 .ring silicates
 ..bertrandite
Berwick Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...lower Paleozoic
 ....Berwick Formation
RTOrdovician
 Silurian
 New Hampshire
 Maine
 Merrimack Group
SNIn Merrimack Group. Probably Ordovician and Silurian. SW Maine and SE New Hampshire. Indexed with ages as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Berwickshire Scotland  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..United Kingdom
 ...Great Britain
 ....Scotland
 .....Berwickshire Scotland
SNFormer county in SE Scotland. Since 1974, part of Border region Scotland.
beryl  search
BTsilicates
 .ring silicates
 ..beryl
RTgems
 aquamarine
 beryllium
 beryllium ores
 emerald
SNMay be used as a mineral or commodity term.
beryllium  search
BTmetals
 .alkaline earth metals
 ..beryllium
NTBe-10
 Be-10/Be-9
 Be-7
UFBe
RTberyl
 beryllium ores
SNChemical element. Use beryllium ores for beryllium as a commodity.
beryllium ores  search
BTmetal ores
 .beryllium ores
RTberyl
 beryllium
SNCommodity. See List C.
Besancon France  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Doubs France
 ....Besancon France
SNCity near Swiss border in E France.
Beshchady Mountains  search
BTEurope
 .Carpathians
 ..Beshchady Mountains
RTPoland
 Ukraine
 Slovakia
SNSection of the Carpathians. Indexed with countries as applicable.
Beskid Mountains  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Beskid Mountains
BTEurope
 .Carpathians
 ..Beskid Mountains
NTPieniny Mountains
UFBeskids
RTBielsko Poland
 Slovakia
 Nowy Sacz Poland
 Polish Carpathians
SNBoth West and East Beskid mountains comprise mountain group of the Carpathians on N border of Slovakia extending into Poland. This term has multiple hierarchies. Indexed with countries as applicable.
Beskids  search
USEBeskid Mountains
Bessarabian  search
SNNo longer a valid term for GeoRef. See Moldova for the region.
besshi-type deposits  search
RTcopper ores
 iron ores
 mineral deposits, genesis
 massive sulfide deposits
 stratabound deposits
Bet-Pak-Dala  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Kazakhstan
 ..Bet-Pak-Dala
UFGolodnaya Step
 Hunger Steppe
SNDesert steppe W of Lake Balkhash. This term has multiple hierarchies.
beta particles  search
USEbeta rays
beta rays  search
UFbeta particles
 rays, beta
RTcosmic rays
 alpha rays
 gamma rays
 radioactivity
 X-rays
SNUse when referring to the rays themselves. Added to Thesaurus in 1982.
Beta Regio  search
BTVenus
 .Beta Regio
SNLow relief area above Venusian plains. Also search Beta AND Venus. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
betafite  search
BToxides
 .niobates
 ..niobotantalates
 ...betafite
UFblomstrandite
 ellsworthite
 hatchettolite
RTpyrochlore
SNThis term has multiple hierarchies.
betekhtinite  search
BTsulfides
 .betekhtinite
Betic Cordillera  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Iberian Peninsula
 ...Spain
 ....Betic Cordillera
NTSerrania de Ronda
 Spanish Sierra Nevada
UFCordillera Betica
 Cordillera Marianica
RTNevado-Filabride Complex
 Andalusian
 Betic Zone
 Guadix-Baza Basin
 Prebetic Zone
 Subbetic Zone
SNExtends along the N extremity of Andalusia between Guadiana and Guadalquivir rivers. It is a southern series of the Alpine System. Includes the Sierra Morena.
Betic Zone  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Iberian Peninsula
 ...Spain
 ....Betic Zone
RTBetic Cordillera
SNUsed in association with the Betic Cordillera in SW Spain.
Betsiboka Basin  search
BTAfrica
 .Madagascar
 ..Betsiboka Basin
UFMajunga Basin
SNAround town of Majunga on Bombetoka Bay. Before 1978, also search Majunga. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Betts Cove  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Newfoundland
 ...Newfoundland Island
 ....Betts Cove
Betts Cove Ophiolite  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Ordovician
 ....Betts Cove Ophiolite
RTNewfoundland Island
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1989.
Betula  search
BTPlantae
 .Spermatophyta
 ..Angiospermae
 ...Dicotyledoneae
 ....Betula
SNGenus.
beudantite  search
BTarsenates
 .beudantite
BTsulfates
 .beudantite
SNThis term has multiple hierarchies.
Bevier Coal  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Carboniferous
 ....Pennsylvanian
 .....Bevier Coal
RTKansas
 Cherokee Group
 Desmoinesian
SNBevier Formation comprises Bevier Coal with underlying gray clay and overlying black slate. SE Kansas.
Bewcastle England  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..United Kingdom
 ...Great Britain
 ....England
 .....Cumbria England
 ......Cumberland England
 .......Bewcastle England
SNVillage and parish in N Cumberland County, NW England.
Bexar County Texas  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Bexar County Texas
NTSan Antonio Texas
RTEdwards Aquifer
SNSW central Texas.
Beyrichicopina  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Arthropoda
 ..Mandibulata
 ...Crustacea
 ....Ostracoda
 .....Beyrichicopina
RTmicrofossils
SNIndexed with microfossils if applicable.
Bezymianny  search
USEBezymyannyy
Bezymyanny  search
USEBezymyannyy
Bezymyannyi  search
USEBezymyannyy
Bezymyannyy  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Russian Federation
 ..Kamchatka Russian Federation
 ...Bezymyannyy
UFBezymianny
 Bezymyanny
 Bezymyannyi
RTvolcanoes
 Kamchatka Peninsula
SNVolcano. E-central Kamchatka Peninsula. Klyuchevskaya Sopka, Tolbachik, and Sheveluch are nearby. This term has multiple hierarchies.
BGS  search
SNUse British Geological Survey if applicable.
Bhandara India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Maharashtra India
 ....Bhandara India
SNTown in extreme NE Maharashtra, central India.
Bhander Group  search
RTPrecambrian
 Cambrian
 India
 Madhya Pradesh India
 Vindhyan
SNIncludes upper Bhander Sandstone, Sirbu shales, Middle Bhander Sandstone and Ganurgarh shales. Named after range of hills N of Narmada Valley. Indexed with ages as applicable.
Bharuch India  search
USEBroach India
Bhilwara India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Rajasthan India
 ....Bhilwara India
SNTown and district in S central Rajasthan, NW India.
BHTV  search
USEborehole televiewers
Bhuj India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Gujarat India
 ....Kutch India
 .....Bhuj India
SNTown in Kutch, Gujarat, W India.
Bhuj Series  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Middle Cretaceous
 .....Bhuj Series
RTIndia
 Gujarat India
SNConsists of Zamia beds, Ptilophyllum beds, and Palmoxylon beds. Named after town of Bhuj in Kutch.
Bhutan  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..Bhutan
RTHimalayas
 Lesser Himalayas
SNKingdom in E Himalayas between Tibet (Xizang) and NE India.
Bi  search
USEbismuth
Bialowieza  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Poland
 ...Bialowieza
RTnational parks
SNNational park in E Poland.
Bialystok Poland  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Poland
 ...Bialystok Poland
NTBelsk Poland
SNProvince in extreme NE Poland. Also a city.
Biarritz France  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Pyrenees-Atlantiques France
 ....Biarritz France
SNTown on the Bay of Biscay near Spanish border.
Biarritzian  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Paleogene
 ....Eocene
 .....Biarritzian
SNEurope. Middle to upper Eocene.
biaxial tests  search
RTrock mechanics
 soil mechanics
 deformation
 compression
 confining pressure
 testing
 triaxial tests
 uniaxial tests
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1995.
Bibb County Alabama  search
BTUnited States
 .Alabama
 ..Bibb County Alabama
Bibb County Georgia  search
BTUnited States
 .Georgia
 ..Bibb County Georgia
NTMacon Georgia
SNCentral Georgia.
bibliographic review  search
USEbibliography
bibliographies  search
USEbibliography
bibliography  search
UFbibliographic review
 bibliographies
RTassociations
 oceanography
 petrology
 paleontology
 structural geology
 stratigraphy
 catalogs
 glossaries
 lexicons
 areal geology
 geology
 publications
 mineralogy
 biography
 GeoRef
 Geoscan
 libraries
 monographs
 paleobotany
 research
 review
 sedimentary petrology
 sur
SNCovers major bibliographies on topics, areas or persons.
bicarbonate ion  search
RTgeochemistry
 carbonates
 ions
 carbonate ion
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1982.
Bicaz Valley  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Romania
 ...Bicaz Valley
BTEurope
 .Moldavia
 ..Bicaz Valley
RTBacau Romania
SNRiver valley in Bacau County. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Bida Nigeria  search
BTAfrica
 .West Africa
 ..Nigeria
 ...Bida Nigeria
SNRegion in W central Nigeria.
Bidahochi Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Neogene
 ....Pliocene
 .....Bidahochi Formation
RTNew Mexico
 Arizona
SNDivided into six members for mapping purposes. Fifth member informally referred to as White Cone Member. In NE Arizona.
bideauxite  search
BThalides
 .chlorides
 ..bideauxite
BThalides
 .fluorides
 ..bideauxite
SNThis term has multiple hierarchies.
Biel Lake  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Switzerland
 ...Bern Switzerland
 ....Biel Lake
UFBienne Lake
 Lake of Bienne
SNIn NW Bern.
Biella Italy  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Italy
 ...Piemonte Italy
 ....Vercelli Italy
 .....Biella Italy
SNTown in Vercelli Province in NW Italy.
Bielsk Podlaski Poland  search
USEBelsk Poland
Bielsk Poland  search
USEBelsk Poland
Bielsko Poland  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Poland
 ...Bielsko Poland
NTAndrychow Poland
 Bielsko-Biala Poland
 Cieszyn Poland
 Wadowice Poland
RTBeskid Mountains
 Katowice Poland
SNAs of 1989, used only for the province in S Poland. Before 1989, also used for the city of Bielsko-Biala.
Bielsko-Biala Poland  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Poland
 ...Bielsko Poland
 ....Bielsko-Biala Poland
RTKatowice Poland
SNName of city which was combined with Biala in 1950 to form Bielsko-Biala in what was formerly part of Katowice Province. Before 1989, also search Bielsko Poland.
Bienne Lake  search
USEBiel Lake
Bienville Parish Louisiana  search
BTUnited States
 .Louisiana
 ..Bienville Parish Louisiana
BIFs  search
USEbanded iron formations
Big Bear earthquake 1992  search
BTearthquakes
 .Big Bear earthquake 1992
RTCalifornia
 Mojave Desert
 Joshua Tree earthquake 1992
 Landers earthquake 1992
 Southern California
SNEpicenter near Big Bear Lake, San Bernardino County California, S California. Aftershock to Landers earthquake 1992. Also search Mojave Desert earthquake 1992. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.
Big Belt Mountains  search
BTUnited States
 .U. S. Rocky Mountains
 ..Big Belt Mountains
BTUnited States
 .Montana
 ..Big Belt Mountains
RTBroadwater County Montana
 Cascade County Montana
 Meagher County Montana
SNRange of Rocky Mountains in W central Montana. This term has multiple hierarchies. Indexed with counties as applicable.
Big Bend National Park  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Brewster County Texas
 ...Big Bend National Park
RTnational parks
 Rattlesnake Mountain
SNIn Brewster County on the Mexican border in SW Texas. Also search Big Bend and Texas.
Big Blue River  search
BTUnited States
 .Big Blue River
RTButler County Nebraska
 Hamilton County Nebraska
 Marshall County Kansas
 Polk County Nebraska
 Saline County Nebraska
 Seward County Nebraska
 York County Nebraska
SNNE Kansas and SE Nebraska. Feeds into the Kansas River system. Indexed with U. S. counties as applicable.
Big Fork Chert  search
USEBigfork Chert
Big Horn Basin  search
USEBighorn Basin
Big Horn County Montana  search
BTUnited States
 .Montana
 ..Big Horn County Montana
RTBighorn River
SNS Montana.
Big Horn County Wyoming  search
BTUnited States
 .Wyoming
 ..Big Horn County Wyoming
RTBighorn River
SNN Wyoming.
Big Horn Dolomite  search
USEBighorn Dolomite
Big Horn Mountains  search
USEBighorn Mountains
Big Injun Sandstone  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Carboniferous
 ....Mississippian
 .....Big Injun Sandstone
RTOhio
 Pennsylvania
 West Virginia
 Greenbrier Limestone
 Pocono Formation
SNDriller's term. Found in the top of the Pocono Group and partly in the overlying Greenbrier Group, it has been a very important shallow petroleum producing zone in West Virginia. Beds have been correlated with Burgoon Sandstone Member (Pocono Formation) o
Big Maria Mountains  search
BTUnited States
 .California
 ..Riverside County California
 ...Big Maria Mountains
RTLittle Maria Mountains
SNSE California. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Big Pine Key  search
BTUnited States
 .Florida
 ..Florida Keys
 ...Big Pine Key
BTUnited States
 .Florida
 ..Monroe County Florida
 ...Big Pine Key
RTCoupon Bight
SNOne of the principal islands in the Florida Keys. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Big Snowy Group  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Carboniferous
 ....Big Snowy Group
RTIdaho
 Montana
 Heath Formation
SNCentral Montana. Includes Heath Formation. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Big Snowy Mountains  search
BTUnited States
 .Montana
 ..Big Snowy Mountains
RTFergus County Montana
 Golden Valley County Montana
SNN central Montana. Indexed with counties and mountain ranges as applicable.
Big Stone County Minnesota  search
BTUnited States
 .Minnesota
 ..Big Stone County Minnesota
Bigby-Cannon Limestone  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Ordovician
 ....Middle Ordovician
 .....Bigby-Cannon Limestone
RTTennessee
SNContemporary facies comprising this unit are Bigby Limestone and Cannon Limestone. Overlies Hermitage Formation and underlies Catheys Formation. Central Tennessee.
Bigfork Che  search
Bigfork Chert  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Ordovician
 ....Middle Ordovician
 .....Bigfork Chert
UFBig Fork Chert
RTOklahoma
 Texas
 Arkansas
 Ouachita Belt
SNSW Arkansas, SE Oklahoma, and Texas. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.
Bighorn Basin  search
BTUnited States
 .Bighorn Basin
UFBig Horn Basin
RTWyoming
 Montana
 Madison Aquifer
SNRiver basin. Indexed with states and counties as applicable.
Bighorn Dolomite  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Ordovician
 ....Upper Ordovician
 .....Bighorn Dolomite
UFBig Horn Dolomite
RTIdaho
 Wyoming
 Montana
 North Dakota
 South Dakota
 Red River Formation
 Williston Basin
SNCentral N United States. Extends into Saskatchewan. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.
Bighorn Mountains  search
BTUnited States
 .U. S. Rocky Mountains
 ..Bighorn Mountains
UFBig Horn Mountains
RTWyoming
 Montana
SNRange of Rocky Mountains. This term has multiple hierarchies. Indexed with states as applicable.
Bighorn River  search
BTUnited States
 .Bighorn River
RTWyoming
 Montana
 Big Horn County Montana
 Big Horn County Wyoming
 Fremont County Wyoming
 Hot Springs County Wyoming
 Washakie County Wyoming
 Yellowstone County Montana
SNS Montana and N Wyoming. Indexed with states and counties as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Bihar India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Bihar India
NTAmarjola
 Bihar mica belt
 Bokaro coal field
 Dhanbad India
 Gaya India
 Hazaribagh India
 Jharia coal field
 Jharia India
 Karanpura coal field
 Karanpura India
 Karharbari India
 Monghyr India
 Mosaboni Mines
 Palamau India
 Rajgir India
 Rajmahal Hills
 Rajmahal India
 Ranchi India
 Singhbhum India
UFBehar India
RTAjay River
 Damuda Series
 Chainpur Meteorite
 Damodar Valley
 Karharbari Stage
 Kosi Basin
 Panchet Series
 Ramgarh coal field
 Semri Series
 Shergotty Meteorite
 Singhbhum Granite
 Singhbhum shear zone
 Son Valley
SNState in E India.
Bihar mica belt  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Bihar India
 ....Bihar mica belt
RTGaya India
 Hazaribagh India
SNExtends WSW-ENE from Gurpa in Gaya district to near Simultala in Bhagalpur district, Bihar. Also passes through districts of Nawadah, Ghiridih, and Munger. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Bihar Mountains  search
USEBihor Mountains
Bihor Mountains  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Romania
 ...Transylvania
 ....Bihor Mountains
NTVladeasa Mountain
UFBihar Mountains
SNIn W central Transylvania.
Bihor Romania  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Romania
 ...Transylvania
 ....Bihor Romania
NTRosia Romania
RTBeius Basin
SNCounty in W Transylvania.
Biikzhal  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Kazakhstan
 ..Biikzhal
SNDrill hole in Emba River region of Caspian Basin. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Bijapur India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Karnataka India
 ....Bijapur India
SNTown in NW Karnataka, S India.
Bijawar System  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Precambrian
 ..Bijawar System
RTIndia
 Madhya Pradesh India
SNIncludes Majhauli Group, Bhitri Group, Lora Group, and Chanderdip Group.
Bikaner India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Rajasthan India
 ....Bikaner India
SNA city in NW Rajasthan, NW India.
Bilaspur India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Bilaspur India
RTMadhya Pradesh India
 Himachal Pradesh India
SNCity and district in S Himachal Pradesh. Also a city and district in E central Madhya Pradesh. Indexed with states as applicable.
Bilbao Spain  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Iberian Peninsula
 ...Spain
 ....Basque Provinces Spain
 .....Vizcaya Spain
 ......Bilbao Spain
SNCity on the Bay of Biscay in the Basque country, N Spain.
Billings County North Dakota  search
BTUnited States
 .North Dakota
 ..Billings County North Dakota
SNW North Dakota.
Billings Montana  search
BTUnited States
 .Montana
 ..Yellowstone County Montana
 ...Billings Montana
SNCity in S central Montana.
Billiton  search
BTAsia
 .Far East
 ..Indonesia
 ...Billiton
UFBelitung
SNIsland between Sumatra and SW Borneo.
Bimini  search
BTCaribbean region
 .West Indies
 ..Bahamas
 ...Bimini
UFBimini Islands
RTNorthwest Providence Channel
SNTwo small islands off S Florida coast.
Bimini Islands  search
USEBimini
Bingham County Idaho  search
BTUnited States
 .Idaho
 ..Bingham County Idaho
RTINEEL
SNSE Idaho.
Bingham Utah  search
BTUnited States
 .Utah
 ..Salt Lake County Utah
 ...Bingham Utah
SNMining town in N central Utah.
Binghamton New York  search
BTUnited States
 .New York
 ..Broome County New York
 ...Binghamton New York
SNCity on the Pennsylvania border in S New York.
Binn Valley  search
USEBinnental
Binnatal  search
USEBinnental
Binnen Tal  search
USEBinnental
Binnental  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Switzerland
 ...Valais Switzerland
 ....Binnental
UFBinn Valley
 Binnatal
 Binnen Tal
SNValley in E Valais.
Binue Valley  search
USEBenue Valley
bioaccumulation  search
RTpollution
 biochemistry
 environmental geology
 residence time
 pollutants
 metabolism
 biodegradation
 toxicity
SNIncrease in concentration of chemical species in tissues when intake rate is greater than excretion and metabolism rates. Added to Thesaurus in 1998.
bioassays  search
RTbiochemistry
 environmental geology
 analysis
 biodegradation
 immunoassays
SNProcedures using living organisms to measure the effect of a substance, factor, or condition by comparing before and after data. Not for use for mineral exploration; for those papers see geobotanical methods or biogeochemical methods as applicable.
bioavailability  search
RTbiochemistry
 environmental geology
 properties
 metabolism
 biodegradation
 nutrition
SNExtent or rate at which a substance is absorbed into a living system or is made available at a site of physiological activity. Added to Thesaurus in 1998.
biocalcarenite  search
BTsedimentary rocks
 .carbonate rocks
 ..limestone
 ...biocalcarenite
RTcalcarenite
biocenoses  search
UFbiocenosis
 biocoenoses
 life assemblage
RTbiotopes
 paleontology
 communities
 ichnofacies
 thanatocenoses
biocenosis  search
USEbiocenoses
biochemical sedimentation  search
BTsedimentation
 .biochemical sedimentation
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1981.
biochemistry  search
UFbiogeochemistry
 paleobiochemistry
RTgeochemistry
 organic compounds
 acetic acid
 fossils
 metabolism
 nitrification
 bioassays
 biology
 bioaccumulation
 biodegradation
 immunoassays
 bioavailability
 biomineralization
 carcinogens
 diet
 Gaia hypothesis
 molecular biology
 paleobiology
 steroids
biochronology  search
RTgeochronology
 biologic evolution
 paleontology
 relative age
 biostratigraphy
 chronology
 correlation
 extinction
 first occurrence
 mass extinctions
SNGeochronology studies using biological events or or paleontologic methods. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
biocirculation  search
SNAs of 1993, no longer a valid term for GeoRef. Usually out-of-scope. Used with ocean circulation.
bioclastic sedimentation  search
BTsedimentation
 .bioclastic sedimentation
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1981.
biocoenoses  search
USEbiocenoses
biodegradation  search
UFbiodeterioration
 biological degradation
RTbioreclamation
 biochemistry
 biogenic structures
 biomarkers
 metabolism
 bioassays
 biosphere
 biology
 biota
 bioaccumulation
 bioavailability
 biogenic processes
 biomass
 bioremediation
 biorhexistasy
 bioturbation
 dechlorination
 degradation
 metabolites
 methanol
 Ps
SNAlso see bioreclamation or bioremediation if applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1982.
biodeterioration  search
USEbiodegradation
biodiversity  search
UFbiological diversity
RTDNA
 biologic evolution
 ecology
 paleoecology
 paleontology
 species diversity
 paleobotany
 ecosystems
 endangered species
SNA broad term which applies to the number, variety and variability of living things. Variation is commonly discussed at submolecular, species, and ecosystem levels. Also search species diversity or [biologic evolution or ecology or paleoecology; AND divers
bioerosion  search
BTerosion
 .bioerosion
BTbiogenic processes
 .bioerosion
RTabrasion
 processes
 biogenic structures
 ichnofossils
 burrows
 reefs
 sedimentary structures
 bioturbation
 borings
 corrosion
 erosion rates
 etching
 predation
SNAlso search biogenic processes and erosion. This term has multiple hierarchies.
biofacies  search
UFbiologic facies
RTsedimentation
 facies
 biotopes
 ecology
 biostratigraphy
 sediments
 assemblages
 ichnofacies
 biota
 ichnofabric
biogenic  search
SNA valid term through 1977. See biogenic structures; biogenic processes.
biogenic effects  search
USEbiogenic processes
biogenic origin  search
USEbiogenic processes
biogenic processes  search
NTbioerosion
UFbiogenic effects
 biogenic origin
RTecology
 biogenic structures
 metabolism
 nitrification
 biota
 biodegradation
 biorhexistasy
 bioturbation
 metabolites
 effects
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1993.
biogenic structures  search
BTsedimentary structures
 .biogenic structures
NTalgal structures
 banks
 bioherms
 bioturbation
 carbonate banks
 girvanella
 lebensspuren
 oncolites
 stromatactis
 stromatolites
 thrombolites
RTbioerosion
 coal
 ichnofossils
 burrows
 peat
 reefs
 biodegradation
 biogenic processes
 borings
 coprolites
 fecal pellets
 hardground
 rhizoliths
 termite mounds
 tracks
 trails
biogeochemical cycles  search
SNNot a valid term for GeoRef. See biochemistry and geochemical cycle.
biogeochemical methods  search
BTgeochemical methods
 .biogeochemical methods
UFbiogeochemical prospecting
RTgeochemistry
 methods
 mineral exploration
 geobotanical methods
SNBefore 1972, also search biogeochemistry; biogeochemical.
biogeochemical prospecting  search
USEbiogeochemical methods
biogeochemistry  search
USEbiochemistry
biogeographic maps  search
BTmaps
 .biogeographic maps
RTpaleontology
 biogeography
SNBefore 1985, also search maps AND biogeography. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
biogeography  search
UFchorology
 paleobiogeography
 phytogeography
 zoogeography
RTadaptive radiation
 biologic evolution
 ecology
 paleoecology
 fossils
 paleogeography
 continental drift
 faunal provinces
 floral provinces
 paleobotany
 biogeographic maps
 Boreal
 colonization
 cosmopolitan taxa
 endemic taxa
 geography
 land bridges
 migration
 paleoi
SNUsed for descriptions of the geographic distribution of both fossil and modern organisms. Indexed with with fossil names and age where available.
biography  search
RTbibliography
 Darwin, Charles
 Gilbert, Grove Karl
 Hutton, James
 Lyell, Charles
 Schimper, Wilhelm-Philippe
 Vernadskiy, Vladimir Ivanovich
 Wegener, Alfred
SNIndexed with also name of individual (last, first)
bioherms  search
BTsedimentary structures
 .biogenic structures
 ..bioherms
NTmud mounds
UForganic mound
RTCoelenterata
 algae
 carbonate banks
 atolls
 reefs
 bafflestone
 biostromes
 calcareous composition
SNAs of 1984, use instead of reefs under sedimentary structures.
biologic evolution  search
UFbiological evolution
RTDNA
 adaptation
 adaptive radiation
 behavior
 biogeography
 homology
 Gaia hypothesis
 biochronology
 extinction
 first occurrence
 biodiversity
 endangered species
 catastrophism
 cladistics
 creationism
 Darwinism
 diachronism
 eukaryotes
 extinct taxa
 gradualism
 life o
SNBefore 1983, also search evolution AND appropriate paleontology category codes (See list A); evolution AND appropriate fossil name(s); evolution AND paleontology; evolution AND paleobotany. Added to Thesaurus in 1983.
biologic facies  search
USEbiofacies
biological degradation  search
USEbiodegradation
biological diversity  search
USEbiodiversity
biological evolution  search
USEbiologic evolution
biological markers  search
USEbiomarkers
biological processes  search
SNAs of 1981, no longer a valid term for GeoRef. Use biology.
biological zones  search
USEbiozones
biology  search
RTbiochemistry
 ecology
 biosphere
 bacteria
 biodegradation
 molecular biology
 paleobiology
 biotypes
 epibiotism
 exobiology
 geomicrobiology
biomarkers  search
UFbiological markers
 molecular fossils
RTorganic compounds
 aromatic hydrocarbons
 alkanes
 alkenones
 biostratigraphy
 asphalt
 biodegradation
 first occurrence
 chemical fossils
 diasteranes
 diterpanes
 gammacerane
 geochemical indicators
 hopanes
 hopanoids
 moretanes
 n-alkanes
 oleananes
 porphyrins
 saturat
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1989.
biomass  search
RTecology
 biodegradation
 new energy sources
 productivity
 trophic analysis
biomechanics  search
RTfunctional morphology
 morphology
 muscles
 wings
 bipedalism
 locomotion
SNAlso index locomotion if applicable.
biometry  search
RTpaleontology
 mathematical geology
 fossils
 statistical analysis
 cladistics
biomicrite  search
BTsedimentary rocks
 .carbonate rocks
 ..limestone
 ...biomicrite
RTmicrite
biomineralization  search
RTbiochemistry
 processes
 bones
 fossilization
 mineralization
 shells
 taphonomy
SNInteraction between organism and environment to produce minerals often as body parts. Applies to many plants and animals. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
biopelite  search
USEblack shale
bioreclamation  search
BTreclamation
 .bioreclamation
RTabandoned mines
 pollution
 waste disposal
 biodegradation
 bioremediation
 decontamination
 polluted water
 remediation
 soil treatment
 strip mining
 water treatment
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1995.
bioremediation  search
BTremediation
 .bioremediation
RTbioreclamation
 reclamation
 pollution
 waste disposal
 biodegradation
 dechlorination
 polluted water
 soil treatment
 strip mining
 water treatment
 Pseudomonas
 waste management
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1993.
biorhexistasy  search
RTsoils
 weathering
 laterites
 biodegradation
 biogenic processes
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1981.
biosparite  search
BTsedimentary rocks
 .carbonate rocks
 ..limestone
 ...biosparite
biosphere  search
RTatmosphere
 Earth
 lithosphere
 biology
 biodegradation
 Gaia hypothesis
 hydrosphere
 IGBP
 tectonosphere
biostratigraphy  search
RTbiotopes
 paleoecology
 biomarkers
 fossils
 aminostratigraphy
 K-T boundary
 miospores
 biofacies
 ichnofacies
 index fossils
 feathers
 biochronology
 first occurrence
 diachronism
 biozones
 dinosaurs
 historical geology
 ichthyoliths
 megaspores
 nannofossils
 paleontolo
biostromes  search
RTCoelenterata
 bioherms
 reefs
biota  search
UForganisms
RTsoils
 ecology
 microorganisms
 biofacies
 bacteria
 biodegradation
 biogenic processes
 factors
 faunal studies
 floral studies
 living taxa
biotite  search
BTsilicates
 .sheet silicates
 ..mica group
 ...biotite
RTheavy minerals
biotite gneiss  search
BTmetamorphic rocks
 .gneisses
 ..biotite gneiss
biotite granite  search
BTigneous rocks
 .plutonic rocks
 ..granites
 ...biotite granite
biotite schist  search
BTmetamorphic rocks
 .schists
 ..biotite schist
biotopes  search
RTadaptation
 ecology
 paleoecology
 biostratigraphy
 assemblages
 biofacies
 communities
 faunal provinces
 floral provinces
 biocenoses
 habitat
 paleoenvironment
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1982.
bioturbation  search
BTsedimentary structures
 .biogenic structures
 ..bioturbation
RTsedimentation
 bioerosion
 burrows
 ichnofacies
 biodegradation
 biogenic processes
 borings
 ichnofabric
 Bouma sequence
biotypes  search
RTecology
 paleoecology
 biology
biozones  search
UFbiological zones
RTstratigraphic units
 stratigraphy
 biostratigraphy
 first occurrence
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1989.
bipedalism  search
RTpaleontology
 functional morphology
 biomechanics
 locomotion
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1985.
Birch Creek Alaska  search
BTUnited States
 .Alaska
 ..East-Central Alaska
 ...Birch Creek Alaska
SNVillage in E Alaska.
Bird Island (Venezuela)  search
USEAves Island
Bird River Manitoba  search
BTCanada
 .Western Canada
 ..Manitoba
 ...Bird River Manitoba
SNVillage in SE Manitoba.
Bird Spring Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Bird Spring Formation
RTPennsylvanian
 Lower Permian
 Utah
 California
 Nevada
 Upper Mississippian
SNUpper Mississippian, Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian. In Spring Mountain area, Nevada. Underlies Spring Mountain Formation and overlies Illipah Formation. Indexed with ages as applicable.
Birdbear Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Devonian
 ....Upper Devonian
 .....Birdbear Formation
RTSaskatchewan
 Montana
 North Dakota
 Williston Basin
 Jefferson Group
 Nisku Formation
SNIn Jefferson Group. Overlies Duperow Formation. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
birefraction  search
USEbirefringence
birefringence  search
UFbirefraction
 double refraction
RToptical properties
 polarization
 refractive index
Birimian  search
USEBirrimian
Birkhead Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Jurassic
 ....Birkhead Formation
RTQueensland Australia
 Australia
 Eromanga Basin
SNEromanga Basin, Queensland. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Birmingham  search
SNNo longer a valid term for GeoRef. After 1992, see Birmingham England; after 1988, see Birmingham Alabama.
Birmingham Alabama  search
BTUnited States
 .Alabama
 ..Jefferson County Alabama
 ...Birmingham Alabama
SNCity in central Alabama.
Birmingham England  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..United Kingdom
 ...Great Britain
 ....England
 .....Birmingham England
RTWarwickshire England
SNCity in West Midlands, W central England.
Birmingham University  search
RTEngland
 academic institutions
SNIn Birmingham in W central England.
birnessite  search
BToxides
 .birnessite
BIRPS  search
UFBritish Institutes Reflection Profiling Syndicate
RTreflection methods
 elastic waves
 seismic methods
 deep seismic sounding
SNAcronym. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Birrimian  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Precambrian
 ..Proterozoic
 ...Paleoproterozoic
 ....Birrimian
UFBirimian
SNW Africa. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Biryusa River  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Russian Federation
 ..Irkutsk Russian Federation
 ...Biryusa River
SNRiver SW of Tayshet in W Irkutsk Oblast. Also search Biryusa. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Bisbee Arizona  search
BTUnited States
 .Arizona
 ..Cochise County Arizona
 ...Bisbee Arizona
SNCity in SE Arizona.
Bisbee Group  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Lower Cretaceous
 .....Bisbee Group
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Comanchean
 .....Bisbee Group
RTNew Mexico
 Arizona
 Mural Limestone
SNSE Arizona, SW New Mexico. This term has multiple hierarchies. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Biscay Bay  search
USEBay of Biscay
Biscayne Aquifer  search
BTUnited States
 .Florida
 ..Biscayne Aquifer
RTBroward County Florida
 Dade County Florida
 Palm Beach County Florida
SNSE Florida. Indexed with counties as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Biscayne Bay  search
BTUnited States
 .Florida
 ..Dade County Florida
 ...Biscayne Bay
SNS of Miami on E coast of Dade County.
bischofite  search
BThalides
 .chlorides
 ..bischofite
Bishkek Kyrgyzstan  search
BTAsia
 .Kyrgyzstan
 ..Bishkek Kyrgyzstan
UFPishpek Kyrgyzstan
SNCity in N Kyrgyzstan. Before 1993, also search Frunze. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Bishop Tuff  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Quarternary
 ....Pleistocene
 .....Bishop Tuff
RTCalifornia
SNE central California. Bishop Tuff was erupted a short time after Sherwin glacial stage.
Bismarck Archipelago  search
BTAustralasia
 .Papua New Guinea
 ..Bismarck Archipelago
NTRabaul Caldera
UFBismarck Islands
RTRat Island
 West Pacific Ocean Islands
 Melanesia
 New Britain
 New Ireland
SNVolcanic group of islands N and NE of E New Guinea.
Bismarck Islands  search
USEBismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Sea  search
BTPacific Ocean
 .South Pacific
 ..Southwest Pacific
 ...Bismarck Sea
SNPart of W Pacific Ocean NE of New Guinea and NW of New Britain. This term has multiple hierarchies.
bismuth  search
BTmetals
 .bismuth
UFBi
RTnative elements
 bismuth ores
 heavy metals
SNChemical element. Use bismuth ores for bismuth as a commodity.
bismuth ores  search
BTmetal ores
 .bismuth ores
RTnative elements
 bismuth
 bismuthinite
SNCommodity. See List C.
bismuthides  search
NTfroodite
 michenerite
RTminerals
bismuthinite  search
BTsulfides
 .bismuthinite
UFbismuthite
RTbismuth ores
bismuthite  search
USEbismuthinite
Bison  search
BTChordata
 .Vertebrata
 ..Tetrapoda
 ...Mammalia
 ....Theria
 .....Eutheria
 ......Artiodactyla
 .......Ruminantia
 ........Bovidae
 .........Bison
NTBison latifrons
 Bison occidentalis
SNGenus.
Bison latifrons  search
BTChordata
 .Vertebrata
 ..Tetrapoda
 ...Mammalia
 ....Theria
 .....Eutheria
 ......Artiodactyla
 .......Ruminantia
 ........Bovidae
 .........Bison
 ..........Bison latifrons
SNSpecies.
Bison occidentalis  search
BTChordata
 .Vertebrata
 ..Tetrapoda
 ...Mammalia
 ....Theria
 .....Eutheria
 ......Artiodactyla
 .......Ruminantia
 ........Bovidae
 .........Bison
 ..........Bison occidentalis
SNSpecies.
Bistrita Mountains  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Romania
 ...Bistrita Mountains
BTEurope
 .Carpathians
 ..Bistrita Mountains
UFBistritei Mountains
SNRange of the Carpathians in NE Romania. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Bistrita Romania  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Romania
 ...Transylvania
 ....Bistrita Romania
SNCity in Bistrita-Nasaud County in central Transylvania.
Bistrita Valley  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Romania
 ...Bistrita Valley
BTEurope
 .Moldavia
 ..Bistrita Valley
SNRiver valley in W central Moldavia. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Bistritei Mountains  search
USEBistrita Mountains
Bitkov Ukraine  search
BTEurope
 .Ukraine
 ..Bitkov Ukraine
UFBitkow Ukraine
 Bytkov Ukraine
SNIn W Ukraine. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Bitkow Ukraine  search
USEBitkov Ukraine
Bitlis Turkey  search
BTAsia
 .Middle East
 ..Turkey
 ...Bitlis Turkey
SNTown and province in SE Turkey.
Bitt  search
bitter spar  search
USEdolomite
Bitter Springs Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Precambrian
 ..Proterozoic
 ...Bitter Springs Formation
RTAustralia
 Northern Territory Australia
SNUnderlies Middle Cambrian sediments and overlies Heavitree Quartzite. SW and S central Northern Territory.
Bitterfeld Germany  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Germany
 ...Saxony-Anhalt Germany
 ....Bitterfeld Germany
SNCity in S Saxony-Anhalt, S central Germany. Before 1993, Bitterfeld was also used with Halle Bezirk.
Bitterroot Range  search
BTUnited States
 .U. S. Rocky Mountains
 ..Bitterroot Range
NTBeaverhead Mountains
RTIdaho
 Montana
 Idaho Batholith
 Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness
SNRange of the Rocky Mountains. This term has multiple hierarchies. Indexed with counties or states as applicable.
bitumenite  search
USEtorbanite
bitumens  search
NTanthraxolite
 asphalt
 gilsonite
 grahamite
RTorganic compounds
 petroleum
 kerogen
 oil seeps
SNBefore 1968, also search bituminous rocks and sands. See List C for use as a commodity term.
bituminous coal  search
BTsedimentary rocks
 .coal
 ..bituminous coal
UFsoft coal
RTlithotypes
SNBefore 1978, also search coal AND bituminous.
bituminous rocks and sands  search
SNNot a valid GeoRef index term after 1968. See oil sands; oil shale; bitumens.
bituminous sands  search
USEoil sands
bituminous shale  search
USEblack shale
Bivalvia  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Mollusca
 ..Bivalvia
NTActinodontida
 Arcina
 Astartida
 Carbonicola
 Cardiidae
 Carditida
 Ctenodontida
 Cyrtodontida
 Didacna
 Edmondia
 Glycymeris
 Gryphaea
 Hiatella arctica
 Hippuritacea
 Limnocardium
 Lucinidae
 Mactra
 Mercenaria
 Myophoria
 Mytilus
 Nuculanidae
 Nuculidae
 Ostreacea
 Pholadomyida
 Praecardiida
 Pteriina
 Rudistae
 Septibranchia
 Solemyida
 Tridacna
 Trigoniidae
 Unionidae
 Venerida
UFLamellibranchiata
 Pelecypoda
SNClass.
bivariate analysis  search
BTstatistical analysis
 .bivariate analysis
RTanalysis
 multivariate analysis
 univariate analysis
Biwa Lake  search
USELake Biwa
Biwabik Iron Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Precambrian
 ..Biwabik Iron Formation
RTMinnesota
 Animikie Group
 Mesabi Range
SNIn Animikie Group. Saint Louis County, NE Minnesota. Part of Mesabi Range.
bixbyite  search
BToxides
 .bixbyite
UFpartridgeite
Bjerkrem-Sogndal Massif  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..Scandinavia
 ...Norway
 ....Bjerkrem-Sogndal Massif
RTSogn
 Sogndal Norway
SNS Norway.
Bjornoya  search
USEBear Island
Bjurbole Meteorite  search
BTmeteorites
 .stony meteorites
 ..chondrites
 ...L chondrites
 ....Bjurbole Meteorite
RTFinland
SNImpact ENE of Helsinki. Before 1981, also search Bjurbole AND meteorites. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
Bk  search
USEberkelium
Black  search
Black Creek Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Upper Cretaceous
 .....Black Creek Formation
RTSouth Carolina
 North Carolina
SNE South Carolina and W North Carolina. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Black earth  search
USEChernozems
Black Forest  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Black Forest
UFSchwarzwald
RTSwitzerland
 Baden-Wurttemberg Germany
SNMountainous region in W Baden-Wurttemberg extending into NW Switzerland. Indexed with country and state or canton as applicable.
Black Hawk County Iowa  search
BTUnited States
 .Iowa
 ..Black Hawk County Iowa
Black Hills  search
RTUnited States
 Wyoming
 South Dakota
 Pennington County South Dakota
 Crook County Wyoming
 Custer County South Dakota
 Fall River County South Dakota
 Lawrence County South Dakota
 Meade County South Dakota
 Niobrara County Wyoming
 Weston County Wyoming
SNGroup of mountains primarily in SW South Dakota. May be in other locations. Search in combination with state or region. Indexed with states and counties as applicable.
black lead  search
USEgraphite
Black Mesa  search
RTApache County Arizona
 Arizona
 Coconino County Arizona
 Navajo County Arizona
SNTableland region in NE Arizona. Also occurs in other locations. Search in combination with state or region. Indexed with counties or regions as applicable.
Black Mesa Basin  search
RTArizona
 Coconino County Arizona
 Navajo County Arizona
SNIn NE Arizona. Search in combination with state or region. Indexed with counties or regions as applicable.
Black Mountain  search
RTWales
 Australia
 California
 Arizona
 South Africa
SNOccurs in various locations. Indexed with appropriate regions or states and U.S. counties as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Black Mountains  search
RTEngland
 Wales
 Utah
 California
 Nevada
 Arizona
 Beaver County Utah
 Black Range
 Clark County Nevada
 Inyo County California
 Iron County Utah
 Mohave County Arizona
SNOccur in numerous locations including: part of the Amargosa Range, Death Valley area, E California and S Nevada; Mohave County, NW Arizona and Clark County, S Nevada; Beaver and Iron counties, SW Utah; and in SE Wales and SW England. Indexed with states a
Black Range  search
RTNew Mexico
 Black Mountains
 Grant County New Mexico
 Sierra County New Mexico
SNExtends N-S through parts of Grant and Sierra counties in SW New Mexico. Indexed with counties or state and mountain ranges as applicable.
Black River Group  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Ordovician
 ....Middle Ordovician
 .....Black River Group
RTPennsylvania
 New York
 Blackriverian
SNComprises Pamelia, Lowville, and Chaumont formations.
Black River-Matheson Program  search
USEBRIM
Black Rock  search
RTUtah
 North Atlantic
 Bahamas
 Black Rock Desert
SNW central Utah. Also search Black Rock Desert and Utah for location in Utah. As of 1993, use Black Rock Utah for the town if applicable. Also a marine feature in the Bahamas. Indexed with states or regions as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
Black Rock Desert  search
RTNevada
 Black Rock
 Humboldt County Nevada
 Millard County Utah
 Pershing County Nevada
SNIn Pershing and Humboldt counties in NW Nevada. Also a location in Millard County Utah. Search in combination with state or region. Indexed with counties or states as applicable.
Black Sea  search
BTMediterranean Sea
 .East Mediterranean
 ..Black Sea
RTAzov Sea
 Bosporus
 DSDP Site 379
 DSDP Site 380
 DSDP Site 381
 Eurasia
 Leg 42B
SNLarge inland sea bounded on the N and NE by the Central Asian republics, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine; S by Turkey, and W by Bulgaria and Romania.
Black Sea Basin  search
USEBlack Sea region
Black Sea Coast  search
USEBlack Sea region
Black Sea Lowland  search
USEBlack Sea region
Black Sea region  search
UFBlack Sea Basin
 Black Sea Coast
 Black Sea Lowland
RTTurkey
 Romania
 Ukraine
 Bulgaria
 Eurasia
 Cimmerian Orogeny
 Dobruja Basin
 Moldova
SNIndexed with Europe and/or Asia; and/or countries as applicable.
black shale  search
BTsedimentary rocks
 .clastic rocks
 ..black shale
UFbiopelite
 bituminous shale
 carbonaceous shale
RTterrigenous materials
 shale
 carbonaceous composition
black smokers  search
BThydrothermal vents
 .black smokers
RTbottom features
 ocean floors
 sulfides
 mid-ocean ridges
 hydrothermal conditions
 fumaroles
 volcanic features
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1993.
Black Warrior Basin  search
BTUnited States
 .Black Warrior Basin
RTMississippi
 Alabama
 Mary Lee Coal
 Warrior coal field
SNPrimarily in Alabama. Indexed with states as applicable.
Blackbird District  search
USEBlackbird mining district
Blackbird mining district  search
BTUnited States
 .Idaho
 ..Lemhi County Idaho
 ...Blackbird mining district
UFBlackbird District
RTmines
 copper ores
 cobalt ores
SNE central Idaho. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Blackford County Indiana  search
BTIndiana
 .Blackford County Indiana
SNE Indiana.
Blackhawk Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Upper Cretaceous
 .....Blackhawk Formation
RTUtah
 Mesaverde Group
SNIn Mesaverde Group. Six principal members are Desert, Grassy, Sunnyside, Kenilworth, Aberdeen, and Spring Canyon. Central E Utah.
Blackleaf Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Lower Cretaceous
 .....Blackleaf Formation
RTMontana
 Colorado Group
 Sweetgrass Arch
SNLower Cretaceous. NW and central Montana. In Colorado Group. Members ascending are Flood Member, Taft Hill Member, Vaughn Member, and Bootlegger Member. Underlies Marias River Shale; overlies Kootenay Formation. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Blackriverian  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Ordovician
 ....Middle Ordovician
 .....Blackriverian
RTBlack River Group
SNNorth America. Lower Mohawkian, below Trentonian.
Blacksburg Virginia  search
BTUnited States
 .Virginia
 ..Montgomery County Virginia
 ...Blacksburg Virginia
SNTown in SW Virginia.
Blackstone Series  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Precambrian
 ..Proterozoic
 ...Neoproterozoic
 ....Blackstone Series
RTMassachusetts
 Rhode Island
SNSE Massachusetts and N Rhode Island. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Blackwater Draw Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Quaternary
 ....Blackwater Draw Formation
RTPleistocene
 Holocene
 New Mexico
 Texas
SNPleistocene or Holocene. In Texas and New Mexico. Indexed with age as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.
Blackwater River  search
RTMissouri
 Florida
 West Virginia
SNSeveral locations including NW Florida and W Missouri. Indexed with county or region as applicable.
Bladen County North Carolina  search
BTUnited States
 .North Carolina
 ..Bladen County North Carolina
Blaine County Idaho  search
BTUnited States
 .Idaho
 ..Blaine County Idaho
RTPioneer Mountains
 Craters of the Moon
 Sawtooth Range
SNS central Idaho.
Blaine County Montana  search
BTUnited States
 .Montana
 ..Blaine County Montana
SNN Montana.
Blaine County Nebraska  search
BTUnited States
 .Nebraska
 ..Blaine County Nebraska
SNCentral Nebraska.
Blaine County Oklahoma  search
BTUnited States
 .Oklahoma
 ..Blaine County Oklahoma
SNW central Oklahoma.
Blaine Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Permian
 ....Blaine Formation
RTOklahoma
 Texas
SNIn Nippewalla, El Reno, or Pease River groups. W Oklahoma, central North and panhandle of Texas.
Blair County Pennsylvania  search
BTUnited States
 .Pennsylvania
 ..Blair County Pennsylvania
NTAltoona Pennsylvania
SNCentral Pennsylvania.
Blair Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Upper Cretaceous
 .....Blair Formation
RTUtah
 Wyoming
 Mesaverde Group
SNIn Mesaverde Group. Underlies Rock Springs Formation and overlies Hilliard Shale. SW Wyoming and NE Utah. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Blairmore Group  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Blairmore Group
RTAlberta
SNIncludes the Gladstone Formation, Beaver Mines Formation, and Mill Creek Formation in S Alberta.
Blake Basin  search
USEBlake-Bahama Basin
Blake Nose  search
BTAtlantic Ocean
 .North Atlantic
 ..Blake Plateau
 ...Blake Nose
RTLeg 171A
 DSDP Site 389
 DSDP Site 390
 DSDP Site 392
 Leg 171B
 Leg 44
 ODP Site 1049
 ODP Site 1050
 ODP Site 1051
 ODP Site 1052
 ODP Site 1053
SNNE-jutting spur of the Blake Plateau. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
Blake Outer Ridge  search
USEBlake-Bahama Outer Ridge
Blake Plateau  search
BTAtlantic Ocean
 .North Atlantic
 ..Blake Plateau
NTBlake Nose
UFBahama Platform
RTLeg 101
 ODP Site 627
SNE of N Florida and N of Grand Bahama Island.
Blake Ridge  search
USEBlake-Bahama Outer Ridge
Blake River Group  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Precambrian
 ..Archean
 ...Blake River Group
RTAbitibi Belt
 Ontario
 Quebec
SNW Quebec and E Ontario. Indexed with provinces as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Blake-Bahama Basin  search
BTAtlantic Ocean
 .North Atlantic
 ..Blake-Bahama Basin
UFBlake Basin
RTLeg 44
 DSDP Site 391
SNJust to the E of the Blake Plateau E of North Florida.
Blake-Bahama Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Lower Cretaceous
 .....Blake-Bahama Formation
RTNorth Atlantic
 Atlantic Ocean
 DSDP Site 603
 Leg 93
SNNW Atlantic. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Blake-Bahama Outer Ridge  search
BTAtlantic Ocean
 .North Atlantic
 ..Blake-Bahama Outer Ridge
UFBlake Outer Ridge
 Blake Ridge
RTLeg 11
 Leg 172
 Leg 44
 DSDP Site 100
 DSDP Site 102
 DSDP Site 103
 DSDP Site 104
 Leg 164
 ODP Site 1056
 ODP Site 1057
 ODP Site 1058
 ODP Site 1059
 ODP Site 1060
 ODP Site 1061
 ODP Site 1062
 ODP Site 994
 ODP Site 995
 ODP Site 996
 ODP Site 997
SNE of the Blake-Bahama Basin which is E of the Blake Plateau off N Florida.
Blancan  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Blancan
RTPliocene
 Pleistocene
 Texas
SNNorth America. Above Hemphillian; below Irvingtonian. Indexed with ages as applicable.
Blanco County Texas  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Blanco County Texas
Blanco fracture zone  search
BTPacific Ocean
 .North Pacific
 ..Northeast Pacific
 ...Blanco fracture zone
SNOff coast of Oregon. NE of E end of Mendocino Escarpment. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Blanco River basin  search
USERio Blanco Basin
Bland County Virginia  search
BTUnited States
 .Virginia
 ..Bland County Virginia
blasting  search
RTengineering geology
 foundations
 excavations
 explosions
 spalling
Blastoidea  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Echinodermata
 ..Crinozoa
 ...Blastoidea
blastomylonite  search
BTmetamorphic rocks
 .mylonites
 ..blastomylonite
Blattaria  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Arthropoda
 ..Mandibulata
 ...Insecta
 ....Pterygota
 .....Neoptera
 ......Exopterygota
 .......Blattaria
UFBlattodea
 Blattopteroida
SNOrder.
Blattodea  search
USEBlattaria
Blattopteroida  search
USEBlattaria
Bleckley County Georgia  search
BTUnited States
 .Georgia
 ..Bleckley County Georgia
Bledsoe County Tennessee  search
BTUnited States
 .Tennessee
 ..Bledsoe County Tennessee
Bleiberg Austria  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Austria
 ...Carinthia Austria
 ....Bleiberg Austria
SNTown in S Austria.
Bleikvassli  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..Scandinavia
 ...Norway
 ....Nordland Norway
 .....Bleikvassli
SNOre bearing region.
Blekinge Sweden  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..Scandinavia
 ...Sweden
 ....Blekinge Sweden
SNCounty on the Baltic Sea in extreme SE Sweden.
blind deposits  search
UFconcealed deposits
 hidden deposits
 orebodies, hidden
RTmineral deposits, genesis
 mineral exploration
 ore bodies
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1981.
blind faults  search
BTfaults
 .blind faults
RTactive faults
 buried features
 deep-seated structures
SNDo not intersect the surface during movements. Indexed with specific kind of fault if available.
Blind River Ontario  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Ontario
 ...Algoma District Ontario
 ....Blind River Ontario
SNTown on Lake Huron in S Ontario.
BLM (U. S. Bureau of Land Management)  search
USEU. S. Bureau of Land Management
bloating shale  search
USEshale
block  search
SNA valid index term through 1977. Now use block structures.
block clay  search
USEmelange
block faults  search
USEblock structures
Block Island Sound  search
BTAtlantic Ocean
 .North Atlantic
 ..Block Island Sound
RTLong Island
 Rhode Island
 New London County Connecticut
 Suffolk County New York
 Washington County Rhode Island
SNBetween Washington County, Rhode Island and Block Island.
block mountains  search
USEblock structures
block structures  search
UFblock faults
 block mountains
 fault blocks
RTaccommodation zones
 faults
 horsts
 normal faults
 tesserae
SNRestricted to tectonics. Before 1978, also search faults AND block; block structure.
blomstrandite  search
USEbetafite
Blondeau Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Precambrian
 ..Archean
 ...Blondeau Formation
RTQuebec
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1989.
Bloo  search
Bloody Bluff Fault  search
BTUnited States
 .Bloody Bluff Fault
RTMassachusetts
 Connecticut
 Rhode Island
 New England
SNE Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut. Also search Bloody Bluff. Indexed with counties or states as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Bloomsburg Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Silurian
 ....Upper Silurian
 .....Bloomsburg Formation
RTVirginia
 Pennsylvania
 Maryland
 West Virginia
SNIn Cayuga Group. Central and S Pennsylvania, W Maryland, W Virginia, and N West Virginia.
Blount County Alabama  search
BTUnited States
 .Alabama
 ..Blount County Alabama
SNN central Alabama.
Blount County Tennessee  search
BTUnited States
 .Tennessee
 ..Blount County Tennessee
SNE Tennessee.
Blow River  search
BTCanada
 .Western Canada
 ..Yukon Territory
 ...Blow River
SNFlows into Mackenzie Bay in the extreme N Yukon Territory.
blowou  search
blowouts  search
RTpetroleum engineering
 oil and gas fields
 engineering geology
 geomorphology
 ground water
 dunes
 petroleum
 erosion features
 shore features
 sand bodies
 explosions
 deflation
 drilling
 geopressure
 geothermal systems
 sand boils
SNUse sand boils if applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Bloyd Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Carboniferous
 ....Pennsylvanian
 .....Lower Pennsylvanian
 ......Morrowan
 .......Bloyd Formation
RTOklahoma
 Arkansas
SNShale consists of (ascending) Brentwood Limestone Member, Woolsey Member and an unnamed shale division. NW Arkansas and E Oklahoma.
blue algae  search
USEcyanobacteria
blue chalcocite  search
USEdigenite
Blue Earth County Minnesota  search
BTUnited States
 .Minnesota
 ..Blue Earth County Minnesota
Blue Glacier  search
RTWashington
 Olympic Mountains
SNMount Olympus, Olympic National Park in NW Washington. Also in other locations. Indexed with counties or regions as applicable.
blue lead  search
USEgalena
Blue Mountain  search
RTOntario
 New Mexico
 Idaho
 Pennsylvania
 Washington
 California
 Nova Scotia
 Oregon
SNOccurs in various locations. Indexed with appropriate counties or regions as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Blue Mountain Lake  search
RTAdirondack Mountains
 Hamilton County New York
SNIn the Adirondack Mountains of E central New York. Also in other locations. Indexed with counties or regions as applicable.
Blue Mountains  search
RTUnited States
 Idaho
 Washington
 Oregon
 Jamaica
SNIn W Idaho, NE Oregon, and SE Washington, and also a range in E Jamaica. Indexed with states or Jamaica as applicable.
Blue Nile  search
BTAfrica
 .Blue Nile
RTEthiopia
 Nile River
 Sudan
SNRight headstream of the Nile River. Indexed with countries as applicable.
Blue Ridge Mou  search
Blue Ridge Mountains  search
BTUnited States
 .Blue Ridge Mountains
BTNorth America
 .Appalachians
 ..Blue Ridge Mountains
RTVirginia
 North Carolina
 West Virginia
 Shenandoah Valley
 Georgia
 Grandfather Mountain
 South Mountain
SNE and SE range of the Appalachians. Also search Blue Ridge. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Blue Ridge Pro  search
Blue Ridge Province  search
BTNorth America
 .Appalachians
 ..Blue Ridge Province
RTSouth Carolina
 Virginia
 Pennsylvania
 North Carolina
 Maryland
 West Virginia
 Georgia
 Piedmont
SNEmbraces the Appalachians E of the Great Appalachian Valley from South Mountain, Pa., southward including the Piedmont. Composed of some of the most ancient rocks of the Appalachians. Also search Blue Ridge. Indexed with states as applicable.
blue-green algae  search
USEcyanobacteria
Bluebell Mine  search
RTmines
 lead-zinc deposits
 British Columbia
SNE shore of Kootenay Lake in SE British Columbia. Indexed with commodity and province or region as applicable.
blueschist  search
BTmetamorphic rocks
 .schists
 ..blueschist
RTglaucophane schist
blueschist facies  search
BTfacies
 .blueschist facies
RTmetamorphic rocks
 greenschist facies
Bluesky Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Lower Cretaceous
 .....Bluesky Formation
RTAlberta
 British Columbia
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1989.
Bluff Formation  search
RTOligocene
 Miocene
 New Zealand
 Cayman Islands
 Paradox Basin
SNOligocene, Cayman Islands. Also Oligocene-Miocene basalt in New Zealand. Also occurs as sandstone in the Paradox Basin, SW United States. Indexed with ages as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Bluffport Marl Member  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Upper Cretaceous
 .....Bluffport Marl Member
RTMississippi
 Alabama
 Demopolis Chalk
SNOf Demopolis Chalk. W Alabama and E Mississippi. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
bluffs  search
RTgeomorphology
 fluvial features
 erosion features
 shorelines
 shore features
 cliffs
 slopes
SNCliffs with steep, broad faces. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Blufftown Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Upper Cretaceous
 .....Blufftown Formation
RTAlabama
 Georgia
 Selma Group
SNIn Selma Group. E Alabama and W Georgia. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Blyava  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Russian Federation
 ..Orenburg Russian Federation
 ...Blyava
SNA section of the City of Mednogorsk in the S Urals near the Kazakh border. This term has multiple hierarchies.
BM (NH)  search
USEBritish Museum
Bo Hai  search
USEBohai Bay
Bochnia Poland  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Poland
 ...Tarnow Poland
 ....Bochnia Poland
SNA mining town with evaporite deposits in S Poland.
Bochum Germany  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Germany
 ...North Rhine-Westphalia Germany
 ....Bochum Germany
SNCity in the Ruhr Valley.
Bodaibo Russian Federation  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Russian Federation
 ..Irkutsk Russian Federation
 ...Bodaibo Russian Federation
UFBodaybo Russian Federation
SNTown in NE Irkutsk Oblast. Before 1993, Bodaibo Russian Republic was also used. This term has multiple hierarchies. Indexed with regions as applicable.
Bodaybo Russian Federation  search
USEBodaibo Russian Federation
Bodega Head  search
BTUnited States
 .California
 ..Sonoma County California
 ...Bodega Head
SNTip of peninsula sheltering Bodega Bay from the Pacific Ocean in Sonoma County.
Bodensee  search
USELake Constance
bodies, ore  search
USEore bodies
bodily tide  search
USEEarth tides
bodily waves  search
USEbody waves
body size  search
USEsize
body waves  search
BTelastic waves
 .seismic waves
 ..body waves
NTP-waves
 PcP-waves
 PKiKP-waves
 PKP-waves
 PKS-waves
 Pn-waves
 PP-waves
 PPP-waves
 PPS-waves
 PS-waves
 S-waves
 ScS-waves
 SKKS-waves
 SKP-waves
 SKS-waves
 Sn-waves
UFbodily waves
RTseismology
 waves
 surface waves
boehmite  search
BToxides
 .boehmite
RTaluminum oxides
 aluminum ores
 hoegbomite
Boeotia Greece  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Greece
 ...Sterea Ellas
 ....Boeotia Greece
SNA department in Central Greece.
Boerzsoeny Mountains  search
USEBorzsony Mountains
Bog soils  search
BTsoils
 .Bog soils
RTsoil group
 peat
 Histosols
 Hydromorphic soils
 Intrazonal soils
Boggy  search
Boggy Shale  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Carboniferous
 ....Pennsylvanian
 .....Middle Pennsylvanian
 ......Desmoinesian
 .......Boggy Shale
RTOklahoma
 Arkansas
 Krebs Group
SNIn Krebs Group. Oklahoma and W Arkansas. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Bogota Colombia  search
BTSouth America
 .Colombia
 ..Bogota Colombia
RTSabana de Bogota
SNCity in Cundinamarca Department, central Colombia.
Bogota Plateau  search
USESabana de Bogota
bogs  search
BTmires
 .bogs
NTmuskegs
RTgeomorphology
 fluvial features
 lacustrine features
 fens
 marshes
 peatlands
 swamps
 wetlands
SNWaterlogged spongy ground, consisting primarily of mosses, containing acidic, decaying vegetation that may develop into peat.
Boguszow Poland  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Poland
 ...Walbrzych Poland
 ....Boguszow Poland
SNProvince and city in SW Poland.
Bohai Bay  search
BTPacific Ocean
 .North Pacific
 ..Northwest Pacific
 ...Yellow Sea
 ....Bohai Bay
UFBo Hai
 Gulf of Chihli
 Po Hai
 Po Hai Wan
RTLiaoning China
 Shandong China
 Dongpu Depression
 Hebei China
 Huanghua Depression
 Liaodong Peninsula
 Shandong Peninsula
SNArm of the Yellow Sea bordered by Hebei, Liaoning, and Shandong provinces. This term has multiple hierarchies. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
bohdanowiczite  search
BTsulfides
 .bohdanowiczite
Bohemia  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Czech Republic
 ...Bohemia
NTCentral Bohemian Pluton
 Chvaletice Czech Republic
 Jachymov Czech Republic
 Karlovy Vary Czech Republic
 Kladno Czech Republic
 Kutna Hora Czech Republic
 Pilsen Basin
 Prague Czech Republic
 Pribram Czech Republic
 Slany Czech Republic
 Sokolov Basin
 Teplice Czech Republic
RTBohemian Massif
 Erzgebirge
 Izera Mountains
 Karkonosze Mountains
 North Sudetic Basin
 Snieznik
 Sudeten
 Sudeten Mountains
 Sudetic Basin
 Weisse Elster Basin
 White Mountain
SNRegion in westernmost Czech Republic.
Bohemia-Moravia System  search
SNAs of 1993, no longer a valid term for GeoRef.
Bohemian Basin  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Czech Republic
 ...Bohemian Basin
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1981.
Bohemian Massif  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Bohemian Massif
RTAustria
 Germany
 Poland
 Czech Republic
 KTB
 Bohemia
 Central Bohemian Pluton
 Svratka Dome
 Windischeschenbach Germany
SNA dissected quadrangular plateau mainly in Bohemia with parts in Austria, Germany and Poland. Indexed with region or country as applicable.
boiling  search
RTdegassing
 hydrothermal conditions
 geothermal systems
 bubbles
 evaporation
 gaseous phase
 heat transfer
 liquid phase
 temperature
 volatilization
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1998.
Boise County Idaho  search
BTUnited States
 .Idaho
 ..Boise County Idaho
SNW Idaho.
Boise Idaho  search
BTUnited States
 .Idaho
 ..Ada County Idaho
 ...Boise Idaho
SNCity in SW Idaho.
Bojnice Slovakia  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Slovakia
 ...Bojnice Slovakia
SNVillage in W central Slovakia. Before 1995, Bojnice Czechoslovakia was also used.
Bokaro coal field  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Bihar India
 ....Bokaro coal field
RTcoal fields
SNCoal field in central Bihar. Also search Bokaro.
Bol'shezemel'skaya Tundra  search
USEBolshezemelskaya Tundra
Bolangir India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Orissa India
 ....Bolangir India
SNTown and district in W Orissa, E India.
Bolboforma  search
BTmicrofossils
 .problematic microfossils
 ..Bolboforma
SNGenus. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Boleslawiec Poland  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Poland
 ...Boleslawiec Poland
SNTown in Jelinia Gora Province, SW Poland. Boleslawic has also been used.
Boliden Sweden  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..Scandinavia
 ...Sweden
 ....Vasterbotten Sweden
 .....Boliden Sweden
RTNasliden Mine
SNVillage in N Sweden.
bolides  search
BTmeteors
 .bolides
RTmeteorites
 meteor craters
 fireballs
SNAlso index fireballs or meteorites as applicable.
Bolinas Lagoon  search
BTUnited States
 .California
 ..Marin County California
 ...Bolinas Lagoon
SNOff Bolinas Bay in SW Marin County, W California.
Bolivar  search
SNNo longer a valid term for GeoRef. As of 1993, see Bolivar Colombia or Bolivar Venezuela if applicable. Also used in other locations.
Bolivar Colombia  search
BTSouth America
 .Colombia
 ..Bolivar Colombia
NTCartagena Colombia
RTMagdalena Delta
SNDepartment in N Colombia.
Bolivar County Mississippi  search
BTUnited States
 .Mississippi
 ..Bolivar County Mississippi
Bolivar Venezuela  search
BTSouth America
 .Venezuela
 ..Bolivar Venezuela
NTImataca Complex
RTOrinoco River
SNState in SE Venezuela.
Bolivia  search
BTSouth America
 .Bolivia
NTCochabamba Bolivia
 La Paz Bolivia
 Oruro Bolivia
 Santa Cruz Bolivia
 Sucre Bolivia
RTAltiplano
 Andes
 Amazon Basin
 Central Cordillera
 Bolivia earthquake 1994
 Eastern Cordillera
 San Juan River
 Transamazonian Orogeny
Bolivia earthquake 1994  search
BTearthquakes
 .Bolivia earthquake 1994
RTBolivia
SNEpicenter in N central Bolivia.
Bolivina  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Protista
 ..Foraminifera
 ...Rotaliina
 ....Buliminacea
 .....Bolivinitidae
 ......Bolivina
SNGenus. Indexed with microfossils if applicable.
Bolivinitidae  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Protista
 ..Foraminifera
 ...Rotaliina
 ....Buliminacea
 .....Bolivinitidae
NTBolivina
 Bolivinoides
SNIndexed with microfossils if applicable.
Bolivinoides  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Protista
 ..Foraminifera
 ...Rotaliina
 ....Buliminacea
 .....Bolivinitidae
 ......Bolivinoides
RTmicrofossils
SNGenus. Indexed with microfossils if applicable.
Bollinger County Missouri  search
BTUnited States
 .Missouri
 ..Bollinger County Missouri
Bologna Italy  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Italy
 ...Emilia-Romagna Italy
 ....Bologna Italy
NTFarneto Cave
SNCity and province in E central Emilia-Romagna.
Bolshezemelskaya Tundra  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Russian Federation
 ..Arkhangelsk Russian Federation
 ...Nenets Russian Federation
 ....Bolshezemelskaya Tundra
UFBol'shezemel'skaya Tundra
SNIn Nenets National Okrug of Arkhangelsk Oblast. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Bolshoy Selerikan River  search
BTCommonwealth of Independent States
 .Russian Federation
 ..Yakutia Russian Federation
 ...Bolshoy Selerikan River
SNE Yakutia, Russian Federation. Joins Elgi River SW of Ust-Nera. This term has multiple hierarchies. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Boltyshka Depression  search
BTEurope
 .Ukraine
 ..Boltyshka Depression
RTimpact features
SNCentral Ukraine. Also search Boltyshka or Boltysh. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Bolzano Italy  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Italy
 ...Trentino-Alto Adige Italy
 ....Bolzano Italy
NTMerano Italy
RTTyrol Austria
SNCity and province in N central Trentino-Alto Adige.
Bombay India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Maharashtra India
 ....Bombay India
SNCity on the Arabian Sea in W Maharashtra, W India.
Bon Homme County South Dakota  search
BTUnited States
 .South Dakota
 ..Bon Homme County South Dakota
Bonaire  search
BTCaribbean region
 .West Indies
 ..Antilles
 ...Lesser Antilles
 ....Netherlands Antilles
 .....Bonaire
RTRincon Formation
SNIsland off coast of Venezuela, 30 miles E of Curacao.
Bonanza Group  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Jurassic
 ....Bonanza Group
RTBritish Columbia
 Vancouver Island
SNVancouver Island, SW British Columbia. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.