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co  search
CO (carbon monoxide)  search
USEcarbon monoxide
Co (cobalt)  search
USEcobalt
Co-60  search
BTisotopes
 .radioactive isotopes
 ..Co-60
BTmetals
 .cobalt
 ..Co-60
SNThis term has multiple hierarchies.
CO2  search
USEcarbon dioxide
Coahoma County Mississippi  search
BTUnited States
 .Mississippi
 ..Coahoma County Mississippi
Coahuila Mexico  search
BTMexico
 .Coahuila Mexico
NTParras Basin
RTRio Grande
 Chihuahua tectonic belt
 Rio Grande Rift
 Rio Grande Valley
 Difunta Group
 Sierra Madre Oriental
 Zuloaga Limestone
SNState in NE Mexico.
coal  search
BTsedimentary rocks
 .coal
NTanthracite
 bituminous coal
 coke coal
 humic coal
 lignite
 sapropelite
 steam coal
 subbituminous coal
UFcarbargilite
RTcharcoal
 biogenic structures
 coal fields
 ash content
 anthraxolite
 carbonaceous composition
 coalification
 coalbed methane
 chemical properties
 cleats
 coal seams
 coal balls
 coal deposit maps
 coal exploration
 coal mines
 degasification
 diwa-type deposits
 energ
coal balls  search
UFballs, coal
RTcoal
 coal seams
 concretions
coal basins  search
SNAs of 1981, no longer a valid term for GeoRef. See coal, coal mines, and coal fields.
coal beds  search
USEcoal seams
coal clay  search
USEunderclay
Coal County Oklahoma  search
BTUnited States
 .Oklahoma
 ..Coal County Oklahoma
SNS central Oklahoma.
coal deposit maps  search
BTmaps
 .coal deposit maps
RTcoal
 economic geology maps
SNBefore 1982, search coal AND maps. Added to Thesaurus in 1982.
coal exploration  search
RTcoal
 peat
 discoveries
 exploration
SNBefore 1993, also search coal AND exploration. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
coal fields  search
UFcoalfields
 fields, coal
RTAmasra Basin
 coal
 Bokaro coal field
 Borsod Basin
 coal mines
 Eastern Kentucky coal field
 Irkutsk Basin
 Jharia coal field
 Joban coal field
 Karaganda Basin
 Karanpura coal field
 Kizel coal basin
 Kushiro coal field
 Kuznetsk Basin
 Minusinsk Basin
 Moscow Basin
 P
Coal Measures  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Carboniferous
 ....Upper Carboniferous
 .....Coal Measures
SNAs of 1981, no longer a valid term for GeoRef. See coal.
coal mines  search
BTmines
 .coal mines
RTmining geology
 coal fields
 economic geology
 coal
 strip mining
 longwall mining
SNBefore 1993, also search coal AND (mines or mining geology). Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
coal quality  search
SNNot a valid term for GeoRef. As of 1998, see rank and composition.
coal seams  search
UFcoal beds
 seams, coal
RTcoal
 coalbed methane
 cleats
 coal balls
 degasification
 underclay
SNAlso search coal deposits.
coalbed methane  search
BTpetroleum
 .natural gas
 ..coalbed methane
RTcoal
 energy sources
 Cedar Hill Field
 cleats
 coal seams
 methane
SNBefore 1993, also search natural gas and coal. Commodity term. See List C.
coalfields  search
USEcoal fields
coalification  search
UFcarbonification
 carbonitization
 carbonization
 incarbonization
 incoalation
RTprocesses
 carbonatization
 diagenesis
 coal
Coalinga California  search
BTUnited States
 .California
 ..Fresno County California
 ...Coalinga California
RTCoalinga earthquake 1983
SNCity in S central California.
Coalinga earthquake 1983  search
BTearthquakes
 .Coalinga earthquake 1983
RTCalifornia
 Coalinga California
SNEpicenter near Coalinga, S central California. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Coalsack Bluff  search
BTAntarctica
 .Coalsack Bluff
RTQueen Maud Land
 Ross Dependency
 Ross Ice Shelf
 Beardmore Glacier
SNSite of paleontological investigations in Beardmore Glacier area around NW end of Queen Maud Range off the Ross Ice Shelf in Ross Dependency.
coarse-grained materials  search
RTmaterials
 soils
 sedimentary rocks
 fines
 textures
 clastic sediments
 soil mechanics
 sediments
 fine-grained materials
 clastic rocks
 particulate materials
 grain size
 granular materials
 unconsolidated materials
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1982.
coast  search
SNA valid term through 1978. After 1978, see coastal environment, coastal dunes, coastal effects, coastal sedimentation, beaches, coastal plains, shore features, or shorelines as applicable.
Coast Belt  search
RTAlaska
 Alexander Terrane
 North American Cordillera
 British Columbia
 Chugach Terrane
 Nixon Fork Terrane
 Prince William Terrane
 Wrangellia
SNTectonic belt of the North American Cordillera in British Columbia and SE Alaska. It includes rocks from several terranes; Wrangellia, Alexander, Peninsular, Chugach, Prince William, Nixon Fork. Indexed with British Columbia and/or Alaska as applicable.
Coast Mountains  search
RTNorth America
 Alaska
 Alaska Panhandle
 North American Cordillera
 British Columbia
 Canadian Cordillera
 Yukon Territory
 Cascade Range
 Coast Ranges
SNExtend from Yukon Territory to the Fraser River serving as border between NW British Columbia and the Alaska Panhandle. Indexed with North America; or Alaska, British Columbia, or Yukon Territory as applicable.
Coast plutonic complex  search
BTNorth America
 .Coast plutonic complex
RTCretaceous
 Washington
 Alaska
 British Columbia
SNCretaceous. Coast Mountains of SE Alaska, W British Columbia, and W Washington. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Coast Range Ophiolite  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Jurassic
 ....Coast Range Ophiolite
RTMiddle Jurassic
 Upper Jurassic
 Mexico
 California
SNMiddle-Upper Jurassic. California and Mexico. Indexed with ages as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Coast Ranges  search
RTCalifornia
 North America
 Alaska
 Coast Mountains
 North American Cordillera
 British Columbia
 Olympic Mountains
 Chugach Mountains
 Condrey Mountain Schist
 Diablo Range
 Gabilan Range
 Kenai Peninsula
 Klamath Mountains
 Kodiak Island
 Kula Plate
 Nevadan Orogeny
 Or
SNMountains extending along the Pacific Ocean from California to Alaska. For Venezuela, see Cordillera de la Costa. Indexed with North America; OR states and/or British Columbia as applicable.
coastal  search
SNA valid term through 1977. After 1977, see coastal environment, coastal dunes, coastal effects, coastal plains, coastal sedimentation, beaches, shore features or shorelines as applicable.
coastal dunes  search
BTdunes
 .coastal dunes
BTeolian features
 .coastal dunes
BTshore features
 .coastal dunes
RTgeomorphology
 foredunes
SNThis term has multiple hierarchies. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
coastal effects  search
RTmagnetic field
 effects
SNUse in relation to the Earth's magnetic field. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
coastal environment  search
NTintertidal environment
 subtidal environment
UFshore environment
RTsedimentation
 ecology
 depositional environment
 shorelines
 lagoons
 beaches
 capes
 littoral erosion
 playas
 inlets
 tidal flats
 spits
 carbonate ramps
 coastal plains
 coastal sedimentation
 deltaic environment
 littoral cells
 nearshore environment
 polders
SNBefore 1978, also search coastal; coast.
coastal features  search
USEshore features
coastal plains  search
RTplains
 geomorphology
 fluvial features
 shore features
 coastal environment
 Gilbert-type deltas
Coastal Range  search
SNUse Taiwanese Coastal Range if applicable. Use Coast Ranges for Pacific Coast of North America.
Coastal Range, Taiwan  search
USETaiwanese Coastal Range
coastal sedimentation  search
BTsedimentation
 .coastal sedimentation
RTshorelines
 coastal environment
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1989.
coastlines  search
USEshorelines
CoAxial Segment  search
BTPacific Ocean
 .North Pacific
 ..Northeast Pacific
 ...Juan de Fuca Ridge
 ....CoAxial Segment
RTAxial Seamount
SNCentral Juan de Fuca Ridge. This term has multiple hierarchies. Added to Thesaurus in 1998.
cobalt  search
BTmetals
 .cobalt
NTCo-60
UFCo (cobalt)
RTheavy metals
 cobalt ores
 siderophile elements
 cobaltite
SNChemical element. Use cobalt ores for cobalt as a commodity.
Cobalt Group  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Precambrian
 ..Proterozoic
 ...Paleoproterozoic
 ....Cobalt Group
RTOntario
 Lorrain Formation
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1989.
Cobalt Ontario  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Ontario
 ...Timiskaming District Ontario
 ....Cobalt Ontario
SNMining town in SE Ontario.
cobalt ores  search
BTmetal ores
 .cobalt ores
RTBlackbird mining district
 carrollite
 cobalt
 cobaltite
SNCommodity. See List C.
cobalt pyrites  search
USElinnaeite
cobaltite  search
BTsulfides
 .cobaltite
BTarsenides
 .cobaltite
RTcobalt ores
 cobalt
SNThis term has multiple hierarchies.
Cobb County Georgia  search
BTUnited States
 .Georgia
 ..Cobb County Georgia
Cobb Seamount  search
BTPacific Ocean
 .North Pacific
 ..Northeast Pacific
 ...Cobb Seamount
SNApproximately 550 miles W of Pacific coast of Washington. This term has multiple hierarchies.
cobbles  search
BTsediments
 .clastic sediments
 ..cobbles
RTgravel
 pebbles
 terrigenous materials
 boulders
 shingle
Cobequid Bay  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Maritime Provinces
 ...Nova Scotia
 ....Cobequid Bay
RTMinas Basin
SNEastern arm of Minas Basin off Bay of Fundy.
Cobequid Fault  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Maritime Provinces
 ...Nova Scotia
 ....Cobequid Fault
UFCobequid-Chedabucto Fault
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1989.
Cobequid Highlands  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Maritime Provinces
 ...Nova Scotia
 ....Cobequid Highlands
UFCobequid Mountains
SNN Nova Scotia. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Cobequid Mountains  search
USECobequid Highlands
Cobequid-Chedabucto Fault  search
USECobequid Fault
Coburg Germany  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Germany
 ...Bavaria Germany
 ....Coburg Germany
SNCity in N Bavaria.
Coccolithophoraceae  search
BTPlantae
 .algae
 ..Coccolithophoraceae
NTCeratolithus
 Coccolithus
 Emiliania huxleyi
 Gephyrocapsa oceanica
RTmicrofossils
 nannofossils
 Discoasteridae
SNIndexed with microfossils if applicable.
Coccolithus  search
BTPlantae
 .algae
 ..Coccolithophoraceae
 ...Coccolithus
RTmicrofossils
SNIndexed with microfossils if applicable.
Cochabamba Bolivia  search
BTSouth America
 .Bolivia
 ..Cochabamba Bolivia
SNDepartment including the city in E central Bolivia.
Cochise County Arizona  search
BTUnited States
 .Arizona
 ..Cochise County Arizona
NTBisbee Arizona
 Tombstone Arizona
 Walnut Gulch
RTRincon Mountains
 Sullivan Mine
 Coronado National Forest
SNSE Arizona.
Cochran County Texas  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Cochran County Texas
Cochrane District Ontario  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Ontario
 ...Cochrane District Ontario
NTBeatty Ontario
 Kidd Creek Mine
 Timmins Ontario
UFDistrict of Cochrane
RTBRIM
SNN Ontario.
Cocke County Tennessee  search
BTUnited States
 .Tennessee
 ..Cocke County Tennessee
Cockfield Format  search
Cockfield Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Paleogene
 ....Eocene
 .....middle Eocene
 ......Cockfield Formation
RTLouisiana
 Mississippi
 Texas
 Claiborne Group
SNIn Claiborne Group. Mississippi, NW Louisiana and E Texas. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Coconino County Arizona  search
BTUnited States
 .Arizona
 ..Coconino County Arizona
NTFlagstaff Arizona
 Glen Canyon Dam
 Meteor Crater
RTBlack Mesa
 Black Mesa Basin
 Canyon Diablo Meteorite
 Grand Canyon
 Lake Powell
 Marble Canyon
 O'Leary Peak
 San Francisco Mountain
 Walker Lake
SNN Arizona.
Coconino Sandstone  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Permian
 ....Coconino Sandstone
RTUtah
 Nevada
 Arizona
SNIn Aubrey Group. N Arizona, S Utah, and SE Nevada.
COCORP  search
UFConsortium for Continental Reflection Profiling
RTUnited States
 reflection methods
 seismic methods
 continental crust
 geophysical profiles
 velocity structure
SNAcronym. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Cocos Plate  search
RTplate tectonics
 plates
 Pacific Ocean
 Galapagos Rift
SNIn the Pacific Ocean W of the Caribbean Plate, E and S of the Pacific Plate, and N of the Nazca Plate which is S of the Galapagos Islands. Indexed with geographic area and/or age as applicable.
Cocos Ridge  search
BTPacific Ocean
 .East Pacific
 ..Cocos Ridge
RTNortheast Pacific
 Equatorial Pacific
 Leg 16
SNBetween Costa Rica and the Galapagos Islands.
COCRUST  search
UFConsortium for Crustal Reconnaissance Using Seismic Techniques
RTelastic waves
 seismic methods
SNAcronym. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
coda waves  search
BTelastic waves
 .seismic waves
 ..surface waves
 ...coda waves
RTseismology
 waves
 seismograms
Codell Sandstone Member  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Upper Cretaceous
 .....Codell Sandstone Member
RTNew Mexico
 Colorado
 Kansas
 South Dakota
 Benton Formation
 Carlile Shale
SNIn Carlile Shale. E Colorado, W Kansas, New Mexico and SE South Dakota. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Codiaceae  search
BTPlantae
 .algae
 ..Chlorophyta
 ...Chlorophyceae
 ....Codiaceae
NTHalimeda
RTmicrofossils
SNIndexed with microfossils if applicable.
Codington County South Dakota  search
BTUnited States
 .South Dakota
 ..Codington County South Dakota
Cody Shale  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Upper Cretaceous
 .....Cody Shale
RTWyoming
 Montana Group
 Belle Fourche Shale
 Colorado Group
SNIn Colorado Group or Montana Group. Bighorn Basin in N Wyoming.
coefficient of permeability  search
USEhydraulic conductivity
coefficient of transmissibility  search
USEtransmissivity
coefficient, correlation  search
USEcorrelation coefficient
coefficients, partition  search
USEpartition coefficients
Coelacanthini  search
USEActinistia
Coelenterata  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Coelenterata
NTAnthozoa
 Hydrozoa
 Scyphozoa
 Stromatoporoidea
RTahermatypic taxa
 hermatypic taxa
 bioherms
 encrustations
 reef builders
 atolls
 reefs
 biostromes
 Receptaculitaceae
Coelodonta antiquitatis  search
BTChordata
 .Vertebrata
 ..Tetrapoda
 ...Mammalia
 ....Theria
 .....Eutheria
 ......Perissodactyla
 .......Ceratomorpha
 ........Rhinocerotidae
 .........Coelodonta antiquitatis
SNSpecies.
coercive force  search
USEcoercivity
coercivity  search
UFcoercive force
RTpaleomagnetism
 remanent magnetization
 magnetic field
coesite  search
BTsilicates
 .framework silicates
 ..silica minerals
 ...coesite
Coeur d'Alene District  search
USECoeur d'Alene mining district
Coeur d'Alene mining district  search
BTUnited States
 .Coeur d'Alene mining district
UFCoeur d'Alene District
RTmines
 Idaho
 Montana
 Bunker Hill Mine
 Shoshone County Idaho
 Kootenai County Idaho
 Mineral County Montana
 Sanders County Montana
SNN Idaho and W Montana.
Coeur d'Alene River  search
BTUnited States
 .Idaho
 ..Coeur d'Alene River
SNFlows into Coeur d'Alene Lake in Kootenai County in N Idaho.
coexisting  search
SNA valid term through 1977. After 1977, use coexisting minerals if applicable; see coexisting materials.
coexisting materials  search
SNA valid term index term from 1978-1981. Use coexisting minerals if applicable.
coexisting minerals  search
RTminerals
SNBefore 1978, also search coexisting AND minerals.
Coeymans Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Devonian
 ....Lower Devonian
 .....Coeymans Formation
RTVirginia
 Pennsylvania
 New York
 Maryland
 West Virginia
 Helderberg Group
SNIncludes Stormville Sandstone Member, Elbow Ridge Sandstone Member. W Maryland, E New York, E Pennsylvania, W Virginia, N West Virginia, and New Jersey.
Coffee County Alabama  search
BTUnited States
 .Alabama
 ..Coffee County Alabama
SNSE Alabama.
Coffee County Georgia  search
BTUnited States
 .Georgia
 ..Coffee County Georgia
SNS central Georgia.
Coffee County Tennessee  search
BTUnited States
 .Tennessee
 ..Coffee County Tennessee
SNCentral Tennessee.
Coffey County Kansas  search
BTUnited States
 .Kansas
 ..Coffey County Kansas
coffinite  search
BTsilicates
 .orthosilicates
 ..nesosilicates
 ...coffinite
RTuranium ores
Cohansey Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Neogene
 ....Cohansey Formation
RTPliocene
 Miocene
 Pennsylvania
 Maryland
 Delaware
 New Jersey
SNOverlies Kirkwood Formation, underlies Beacon Hill Gravel. Indexed with ages as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Cohansey-Kirkwood Aquifer  search
USEKirkwood-Cohansey Aquifer
cohenite  search
BTalloys
 .carbides
 ..cohenite
RTmeteorites
coherency, seismic  search
USEseismic coherency
cohesion  search
USEshear strength
cohesionless materials  search
RTmaterials
 engineering geology
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1981.
cohesive materials  search
RTmaterials
 engineering geology
 rock mechanics
 soil mechanics
SNIntroduced in 1978 as general term mostly used in engineering geology. Before 1978, also search cohesive.
coiling  search
RTmorphology
 fossils
Coimbatore India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Tamil Nadu India
 ....Coimbatore India
NTSivamalai
SNCity in W Tamil Nadu, S India.
Coimbra Portugal  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Iberian Peninsula
 ...Portugal
 ....Coimbra Portugal
SNDistrict in W Portugal. Also a city.
Cojedes Venezuela  search
BTSouth America
 .Venezuela
 ..Cojedes Venezuela
NTTinaquillo Venezuela
SNState in NW central Venezuela.
coke coal  search
BTsedimentary rocks
 .coal
 ..coke coal
UFnatural coke
SNAlso search coke. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
Coke County Texas  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Coke County Texas
Coker Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Upper Cretaceous
 .....Coker Formation
RTMississippi
 Alabama
SNW Alabama and E Mississippi. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
cokriging  search
BTstatistical analysis
 .cokriging
RTdata processing
 mathematical geology
 mathematical methods
 geostatistics
 mathematical models
 variance analysis
 stochastic processes
 kriging
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1995.
Colbert County Alabama  search
BTUnited States
 .Alabama
 ..Colbert County Alabama
Colchester County Nova Scotia  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Maritime Provinces
 ...Nova Scotia
 ....Colchester County Nova Scotia
Colchis  search
BTEurope
 .Georgian Republic
 ..Colchis
UFKolkhida
RTRioni Basin
SNPartly swampy lowland in W Georgian Republic on Black Sea S of the Caucasus and along lower Rioni (Rion) River.
Cold Lake  search
BTCanada
 .Cold Lake
RTAlberta
 Saskatchewan
SNOn Alberta-Saskatchewan border. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
cold seeps  search
UFseeps, cold
RTecology
 seepage
 oil seeps
 gas seeps
SNAlso index seepage and/or oil seeps if applicable.
Coldbrook Group  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Precambrian
 ..Proterozoic
 ...Coldbrook Group
RTCanada
 New Brunswick
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1989.
Coldwater Meteorites  search
BTmeteorites
 .Coldwater Meteorites
RTKansas
 octahedrite
 Comanche County Kansas
 H chondrites
SNRefers to two meteorites found in Comanche County, S Kansas. One is an iron meteorite (octahedrite); the other is a chondrite (H chondrite). Before 1981, also search Coldwater AND meteorites. Indexed with octahedrite and/or H chondrites as applicable. Add
Coldwell Complex  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Ontario
 ...Coldwell Complex
SNNW Ontario. Also search Coldwell alkaline complex. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.
Cole County Missouri  search
BTUnited States
 .Missouri
 ..Cole County Missouri
Coleman County Texas  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Coleman County Texas
colemanite  search
BTborates
 .colemanite
Coleoidea  search
USEDibranchiata
Coleoptera  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Arthropoda
 ..Mandibulata
 ...Insecta
 ....Pterygota
 .....Neoptera
 ......Endopterygota
 .......Coleoptera
NTArchostemata
UFColeopteroida
SNOrder. Also search Coleopteroida.
Coleopteroida  search
USEColeoptera
Coles Bay  search
BTAustralasia
 .Australia
 ..Tasmania Australia
 ...Coles Bay
Coles County Illinois  search
BTUnited States
 .Illinois
 ..Coles County Illinois
Colfax County Nebraska  search
BTUnited States
 .Nebraska
 ..Colfax County Nebraska
SNE Nebraska.
Colfax County New Mexico  search
BTUnited States
 .New Mexico
 ..Colfax County New Mexico
RTPalisades Sill
SNNE New Mexico.
coliform bacteria  search
BTbacteria
 .coliform bacteria
NTEscherichia coli
UFfecal coliform bacteria
RTpollutants
 geomicrobiology
 water quality
SNMost often used as a pollution or water quality indicator.
Colima  search
BTMexico
 .Jalisco Mexico
 ..Colima
UFFuego de Colima
RTvolcanoes
 Mexican volcanic belt
SNActive volcano, Mexican volcanic belt, SW Mexico. Its inactive neighbor about 5 km to the north, Nevado de Colima, is also part of the Colima volcanic complex. Added to Thesaurus in 1998.
Colima Mexico  search
BTMexico
 .Colima Mexico
RTGuerrero Terrane
 Sierra Madre Occidental
 Mexican volcanic belt
 Jalisco Block
 Jalisco earthquake 1995
SNState in W Mexico. Also a city.
Colima-Jalisco earthquake 1995  search
USEJalisco earthquake 1995
collaborative learning  search
USEcooperative learning
collagen  search
BTorganic compounds
 .proteins
 ..collagen
collapse structures  search
RTland subsidence
 geomorphology
 crater lakes
 slump structures
collecting  search
RTminerals
 paleontology
 collections
 popular geology
 mineralogy
 curation
 fossil localities
 mineral localities
collections  search
UFmineral collections
RTassociations
 museums
 minerals
 paleontology
 catalogs
 geology
 mineralogy
 libraries
 exhibits
 collecting
 curation
SNUsage restricted to collections in museums, etc.
college level  search
SNA valid term through 1977. After 1977, use college-level education.
college-level education  search
BTeducation
 .college-level education
RTeducational resources
 elementary school
 high school
 junior high school
SNBefore 1978, search college level.
colleges  search
USEacademic institutions
Collenia  search
BTPlantae
 .algae
 ..Collenia
BTsedimentary structures
 .biogenic structures
 ..stromatolites
 ...Collenia
RTmicrofossils
 cyanobacteria
 ichnofossils
SNGenus. This term has multiple hierarchies. Indexed with microfossils if applicable.
Colleton County South Carolina  search
BTUnited States
 .South Carolina
 ..Colleton County South Carolina
Collier County Florida  search
BTUnited States
 .Florida
 ..Collier County Florida
SNOn Gulf of Mexico in S Florida.
Collier Shale  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Collier Shale
RTCambrian
 Ordovician
 Oklahoma
 Arkansas
SNSW Arkansas and SE Oklahoma. Indexed with ages as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Collin County Texas  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Collin County Texas
Collingsworth County Texas  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Collingsworth County Texas
collinite  search
BTmacerals
 .vitrinite
 ..collinite
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1981.
collision  search
SNNo longer a valid term for GeoRef as of 1981. Use plate collision or impacts if applicable. Use plate collision or suture zones with tectonics for collision tectonics (Note added 1995).
colloidal materials  search
NTgels
UFcolloids
RTmaterials
 surfactants
 flocculation
 thixotropy
SNBefore 1978, search colloidal.
colloids  search
USEcolloidal materials
colloquia  search
USEsymposia
colluvium  search
BTsediments
 .clastic sediments
 ..colluvium
RTsoils
 geomorphology
 alluvium
 terrigenous materials
 erosion features
 talus slopes
Cologne Germany  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Germany
 ...North Rhine-Westphalia Germany
 ....Cologne Germany
UFKoln Germany
SNCity on the left bank of Rhine River in W North Rhine-Westphalia.
Colombia  search
BTSouth America
 .Colombia
NTAmazonas Colombia
 Antioquia Colombia
 Bogota Colombia
 Bolivar Colombia
 Cusiana Field
 Galeras
 Magdalena Colombia
 Magdalena Delta
 Magdalena River
 Magdalena Valley
 Nevado del Ruiz
 Sabana de Bogota
 Santander Colombia
 Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta
 Sucre Colombia
RTAndes
 Amazon Basin
 Amazon River
 Orinoco River
 Rio Negro
 Central Cordillera
 Caribbean region
 Eastern Cordillera
 San Juan River
 Santander Massif
 Colombian Basin
 Guajira Peninsula
 La Luna Formation
 Llanos
 Orinoco River basin
 Sierra de Perija
 Western Cordille
Colombia Basin  search
USEColombian Basin
Colombian Basin  search
UFColombia Basin
 Colombian Plain
RTColombia
 Caribbean Sea
 Caribbean region
 Leg 15
 ODP Site 999
SNN of Colombia in S Caribbean. Indexed with Caribbean Sea and/or countries as applicable.
Colombian Plain  search
USEColombian Basin
Colon Archipelago  search
USEGalapagos Islands
colonial taxa  search
UFcolonies
 taxa, colonial
RTecology
 paleoecology
 fossils
 colonization
SNBefore 1978, also search colonial.
colonies  search
USEcolonial taxa
colonization  search
RTecology
 paleoecology
 biogeography
 colonial taxa
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1989.
color  search
RTchemical analysis
 soils
 colorimetry
 crystal field
color alteration index  search
UFconodont alteration index
 thermal alteration index
RTorganic compounds
 palynomorphs
 Conodonta
 Foraminifera
 Ostracoda
 indicators
 thermal alteration
 thermal maturity
SNAlso search thermal alteration AND color; or thermal alteration AND fossil or material name e.g. palynomorphs, kerogen. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.
color centers  search
UFcenters, color
RTminerals
 crystal structure
 crystallography
 optical properties
color imagery  search
BTimagery
 .color imagery
RTremote sensing
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1981.
Colorado  search
BTUnited States
 .Colorado
NTAdams County Colorado
 Alamosa County Colorado
 Arapahoe County Colorado
 Archuleta County Colorado
 Baca County Colorado
 Bent County Colorado
 Boulder County Colorado
 Cache La Poudre River
 Chaffee County Colorado
 Cheyenne County Colorado
 Clear Creek County Colorado
 Colorado mineral belt
 Conejos County Colorado
 Costilla County Colorado
 Crowley County Colorado
 Custer County Colorado
 Delta County Colorado
 Denver County Colorado
 Dolores County Colorado
 Douglas County Colorado
 Eagle County Colorado
 El Paso County Colorado
 Elbert County Colorado
 Fremont County Colorado
 Front Range urban corridor
 Garfield County Colorado
 Gilpin County Colorado
 Gore Range
 Grand County Colorado
 Gunnison County Colorado
 Hinsdale County Colorado
 Huerfano County Colorado
 Jackson County Colorado
 Jefferson County Colorado
 Kiowa County Colorado
 Kit Carson County Colorado
 La Plata County Colorado
 Lake County Colorado
 Larimer County Colorado
 Las Animas County Colorado
 Lincoln County Colorado
 Logan County Colorado
 Mahogany Zone
 Mesa County Colorado
 Mineral County Colorado
 Moffat County Colorado
 Montezuma County Colorado
 Montrose County Colorado
 Morgan County Colorado
 Needle Mountains
 Otero County Colorado
 Ouray County Colorado
 Park County Colorado
 Phillips County Colorado
 Piceance Creek basin
 Pikes Peak Batholith
 Pitkin County Colorado
 Prowers County Colorado
 Pueblo County Colorado
 Rangely Anticline
 Rio Blanco County Colorado
 Rio Grande County Colorado
 Rocky Flats Plant
 Rocky Mountain National Park
 Routt County Colorado
 Saguache County Colorado
 San Juan County Colorado
 San Juan volcanic field
 San Miguel County Colorado
 Sawatch Range
 Sedgwick County Colorado
 Summit County Colorado
 Teller County Colorado
 Vail Pass
 Washington County Colorado
 Wattenberg Field
 Weld County Colorado
 Wet Mountains
 White River Plateau
 Yampa River
 Yuma County Colorado
RTAlamosa River
 Albuquerque Basin
 Arikaree Group
Colorado County Texas  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Colorado County Texas
Colorado Desert  search
BTUnited States
 .California
 ..Colorado Desert
RTGreat Basin
 Imperial Valley
 Salton Sea
SNSE California. Part of the Great Basin. Includes Coachella Valley, Imperial Valley and Salton Sea. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Colorado Group  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Colorado Group
RTNew Mexico
 Idaho
 Montana
 Iowa
 Colorado
 Nebraska
 North Dakota
 Kansas
 Belle Fourche Shale
 Cody Shale
 Graneros Shale
 Benton Formation
 Carlile Shale
 Greenhorn Limestone
 Blackleaf Formation
 Frontier Formation
 Mowry Shale
 Newcastle Sandstone
 Niobrara Formation
SNIncludes Thermopolis Shale, Mowry Shale, Warm Creek Shale, Graneros Shale, Greenhorn Limestone, Carlile Shale, Niobrara Formation, Belle Fourche Shale, Marias River Formation, Skull Creek Shale, Fall River Sandstone, Newcastle Sandstone, and Telegraph Sha
Colorado Lineament  search
BTUnited States
 .Colorado Lineament
RTUtah
 Wyoming
 Colorado
 Nebraska
 Colorado Plateau
 Arizona
 South Dakota
 Rocky Mountains
SNProterozoic fault system extending from Nebraska to Arizona. Indexed with states as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Colorado mineral belt  search
BTUnited States
 .Colorado
 ..Colorado mineral belt
RTuranium ores
 molybdenum ores
 Leadville mining district
SNW Colorado. Produces uranium and molybdenum ores. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Colorado Plateau  search
BTUnited States
 .Colorado Plateau
RTNew Mexico
 Utah
 Colorado
 Albuquerque Basin
 Arizona
 Rattlesnake Hills
 Colorado Lineament
 Jemez Lineament
 Price River basin
 Salt Valley
 Taos Plateau
SNIndexed with states as applicable.
Colorado River  search
RTUtah
 Brazil
 Colorado
 California
 Texas
 Argentina
 Nevada
 Chile
 Arizona
 Baja California Norte Mexico
 Sonora Mexico
 Glen Canyon Dam
SNRises in N Colorado and flows SW, then W through the Grand Canyon, and finally S into the Gulf of California. Also a river in Texas. Also occurs in South America. Indexed with U. S. states or regions as applicable.
Colorado River basin  search
RTNew Mexico
 Utah
 Wyoming
 Mexico
 Colorado
 California
 North America
 Nevada
 Arizona
SNDrainage basin. In Southwestern U. S. and NW Mexico. May occur in other locations. Indexed with North America or U. S. or Mexican states as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
Colorado River delta  search
BTMexico
 .Colorado River delta
RTBaja California Norte Mexico
 Sonora Mexico
SNAt N tip of Gulf of California. Indexed with states as applicable.
Colorado School of Mines  search
UFCSM
RTacademic institutions
 Colorado
SNIn Golden, Jefferson County, Colorado. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Colorado Springs Colorado  search
BTUnited States
 .Colorado
 ..El Paso County Colorado
 ...Colorado Springs Colorado
RTPikes Peak
SNCity at junction of Fountain and Monument creeks near Pikes Peak in central Colorado.
coloradoite  search
BTtellurides
 .coloradoite
colorimetric analysis  search
USEcolorimetry
colorimetry  search
UFcolorimetric analysis
RTspectroscopy
 chemical analysis
 analysis
 color
Colquitt County Georgia  search
BTUnited States
 .Georgia
 ..Colquitt County Georgia
Colton Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Paleogene
 ....Eocene
 .....Colton Formation
RTUtah
SNCentral Utah. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Colubridae  search
BTChordata
 .Vertebrata
 ..Tetrapoda
 ...Reptilia
 ....Diapsida
 .....Lepidosauria
 ......Squamata
 .......Serpentes
 ........Colubridae
SNFamily.
columbates  search
USEniobates
Columbia Basin  search
USEColumbia River basin
Columbia Connecticut  search
BTUnited States
 .Connecticut
 ..Tolland County Connecticut
 ...Columbia Connecticut
SNTown in NE Connecticut.
Columbia County Arkansas  search
BTUnited States
 .Arkansas
 ..Columbia County Arkansas
RTWalker Creek Field
SNSW Arkansas.
Columbia County Florida  search
BTUnited States
 .Florida
 ..Columbia County Florida
RTOkefenokee Swamp
SNN Florida.
Columbia County Georgia  search
BTUnited States
 .Georgia
 ..Columbia County Georgia
SNE Georgia.
Columbia County New York  search
BTUnited States
 .New York
 ..Columbia County New York
NTBecraft Mountain
SNSE New York.
Columbia County Oregon  search
BTUnited States
 .Oregon
 ..Columbia County Oregon
SNNW Oregon.
Columbia County Pennsylvania  search
BTUnited States
 .Pennsylvania
 ..Columbia County Pennsylvania
SNE central Pennsylvania.
Columbia County Washington  search
BTUnited States
 .Washington
 ..Columbia County Washington
SNSE Washington.
Columbia County Wisconsin  search
BTUnited States
 .Wisconsin
 ..Columbia County Wisconsin
SNS central Wisconsin.
Columbia Glacier  search
RTSouthern Alaska
 Columbia Icefield
 Chugach Mountains
SNChugach Mountains, S coast of Alaska. Indexed with Southern Alaska as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Columbia Icefield  search
RTAlberta
 Canada
 British Columbia
 Canadian Rocky Mountains
 Banff National Park
 Columbia Glacier
 Jasper National Park
SNSurrounding Mount Columbia in Jasper and Banff national parks, Alberta, and extending into British Columbia. Indexed with provinces as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Columbia Illinois  search
BTUnited States
 .Illinois
 ..Monroe County Illinois
 ...Columbia Illinois
SNCity in SW Illinois.
Columbia Kentucky  search
BTUnited States
 .Kentucky
 ..Adair County Kentucky
 ...Columbia Kentucky
SNCity in S Kentucky.
Columbia Louisiana  search
BTUnited States
 .Louisiana
 ..Caldwell Parish Louisiana
 ...Columbia Louisiana
SNCity in Caldwell Parish, NE central Louisiana.
Columbia Missouri  search
BTUnited States
 .Missouri
 ..Boone County Missouri
 ...Columbia Missouri
SNCity in central Missouri.
Columbia Plateau  search
BTUnited States
 .Columbia Plateau
UFColumbia River plateau
RTIdaho
 Washington
 Oregon
 Channeled Scabland
 Picture Gorge Basalt
 Yakima fold belt
SNLava basin. W United States. Indexed with states as applicable.
Columbia River  search
RTWashington
 British Columbia
 Oregon
 Snake River
 Cowlitz River
 Deschutes River
 Grand Coulee Dam
 Willamette River
SNRises in SE British Columbia and flows S and then W into the Pacific Ocean on the Oregon-Washington border. Also search Columbia AND appropriate area. Indexed with British Columbia and/or states as applicable.
Columbia River Basalt  search
USEColumbia River Basalt Group
Columbia River Basalt Group  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Neogene
 ....Miocene
 .....Columbia River Basalt Group
UFColumbia River Basalt
RTPliocene
 Idaho
 Washington
 Oregon
 Picture Gorge Basalt
 Yakima fold belt
 Frenchman Springs Member
 Grande Ronde Basalt
 Saddle Mountains Basalt
 Wanapum Basalt
 Yakima Basalt
SNMiocene. The Columbia River Basalt was formerly also considered Pliocene (?). N Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Has been divided into the Yakima Basalt (subgroup) containing the Wanapum Basalt, the Grande Ronde Basalt, and the Saddle Mountains Basalt; and
Columbia River basin  search
UFColumbia Basin
RTIdaho
 Utah
 Wyoming
 Montana
 Washington
 North America
 British Columbia
 Nevada
 Oregon
 Channeled Scabland
SNDrainage basin. Indexed with North America or British Columbia and/or states as applicable.
Columbia River estuary  search
BTUnited States
 .Columbia River estuary
RTWashington
 Oregon
SNTidal mouth of the Columbia River. Indexed with counties or regions as applicable.
Columbia River plateau  search
USEColumbia Plateau
Columbia South Carolina  search
BTUnited States
 .South Carolina
 ..Richland County South Carolina
 ...Columbia South Carolina
SNCity in central South Carolina.
Columbia Tennessee  search
BTUnited States
 .Tennessee
 ..Maury County Tennessee
 ...Columbia Tennessee
SNCity in central Tennessee.
Columbian Orogeny  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Columbian Orogeny
RTCanada
 orogeny
SNRefers to orogeny affecting Western Canada during the Cretaceous. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Columbiana County Ohio  search
BTUnited States
 .Ohio
 ..Columbiana County Ohio
columbite  search
BToxides
 .niobates
 ..niobotantalates
 ...columbite
RTniobium ores
 tantalum ores
SNThis term has multiple hierarchies.
columbium  search
USEniobium
Columbus Air Force Base  search
BTUnited States
 .Mississippi
 ..Lowndes County Mississippi
 ...Columbus Air Force Base
SNTen miles N of city of Columbus, NE Mississippi. Before 1998, also search Columbus Mississippi.
Columbus County North Carolina  search
BTUnited States
 .North Carolina
 ..Columbus County North Carolina
Columbus Georgia  search
BTUnited States
 .Georgia
 ..Muscogee County Georgia
 ...Columbus Georgia
SNCity in W Georgia.
Columbus Limestone  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Devonian
 ....Middle Devonian
 .....Columbus Limestone
RTOhio
SNComprises Bellepoint, Eversole (?), Delhi, Marblehead, and Venice members. Named for exposure at Columbus in Franklin County, Ohio.
Columbus Ohio  search
BTUnited States
 .Ohio
 ..Franklin County Ohio
 ...Columbus Ohio
SNCity in central Ohio.
columnar basalt  search
BTigneous rocks
 .volcanic rocks
 ..basalts
 ...columnar basalt
SNBefore 1978, also search columnar AND basalt.
columnar jointing  search
USEcolumnar joints
columnar joints  search
BTfractures
 .columnar joints
UFcolumnar jointing
RTbedding
 joints
SNBefore 1978, also search fractures AND columnar.
Colusa County California  search
BTUnited States
 .California
 ..Colusa County California
SNN central California.
Colville Group  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Upper Cretaceous
 .....Colville Group
RTAlaska
SNN Alaska. Overlies Nanushuk Group; underlies Sagavanirktok and Gubik formations. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Colville River  search
RTWashington
 Alaska
 Northern Alaska
 Colville River delta
 Stevens County Washington
SNFlows E along N slope of Brooks Range and then N into Arctic Ocean in N Alaska. Also in Stevens County Washington. Indexed with Stevens County Washington or Northern Alaska as applicable.
Colville River delta  search
RTNorthern Alaska
 Colville River
SNOn Arctic Ocean in N Alaska. Indexed with Northern Alaska if applicable.
comae  search
RTplanetology
 interplanetary space
 comets
 solar wind
SNRestricted to cometary atmosphere. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Comal County Texas  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Comal County Texas
RTEdwards Aquifer
SNS central Texas.
Comanche County Kansas  search
BTUnited States
 .Kansas
 ..Comanche County Kansas
RTColdwater Meteorites
SNS Kansas.
Comanche County Oklahoma  search
BTUnited States
 .Oklahoma
 ..Comanche County Oklahoma
RTMeers Fault
 Slick Hills
 Wichita Mountains
SNSW Oklahoma.
Comanche County Texas  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Comanche County Texas
SNCentral Texas.
Comanche Peak Limestone  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Lower Cretaceous
 .....Comanche Peak Limestone
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Comanchean
 .....Comanche Peak Limestone
RTNew Mexico
 Texas
 Fredericksburg Group
SNFredericksburg Group. Comanchean. E Texas and New Mexico. Underlies Edwards Formation?; overlies Walnut Clay. This term has multiple hierarchies. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Comanchean  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Comanchean
NTAntlers Sands
 Bisbee Group
 Buda Limestone
 Comanche Peak Limestone
 Edwards Formation
 Fredericksburg Group
 Georgetown Formation
 Glen Rose Formation
 Mentor Beds
 Mural Limestone
 Paluxy Formation
 Pearsall Formation
 Rodessa Formation
 Sunniland Limestone
 Travis Peak Formation
 Trinity Group
 Washita Group
UFComanchian
RTLower Cretaceous
 Upper Cretaceous
SNProvincial series, North America. Below Gulfian. Indexed with Lower Cretaceous or Upper Cretaceous as applicable.
Comanchian  search
USEComanchean
combustion  search
RTgeochemistry
 processes
 ash content
 volatiles
 retorting
comendite  search
BTigneous rocks
 .volcanic rocks
 ..rhyolites
 ...comendite
RTpantellerite
comets  search
NTHalley's Comet
RTmeteorites
 interplanetary space
 parent bodies
 solar system
 tektites
 meteors
 comae
 solar wind
Commander Islands  search
USEKomandorski Islands
Commelinidae  search
BTPlantae
 .Spermatophyta
 ..Angiospermae
 ...Monocotyledoneae
 ....Commelinidae
commencements, sudden  search
SNNot a valid term for GeoRef. Usually out-of-scope. Used as sudden commencements with magnetosphere.
commodity exchange  search
RTeconomics
SNUsually out-of-scope for GeoRef. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
common mica  search
USEmuscovite
common salt  search
USEhalite
common-depth-point method  search
BTgeophysical methods
 .reflection methods
 ..common-depth-point method
UFCDP method
 CMP method
 common-mid-point method
 common-midpoint method
RTmoveout
 normal moveout
 velocity analysis
SNSometimes abbreviated as CDP. Indexed with seismic methods if applicable.
common-mid-point method  search
USEcommon-depth-point method
common-midpoint method  search
USEcommon-depth-point method
Commonwealth of Independent States  search
NTAral region
 Aral Sea
 Armenia
 Astrakhan Arch
 Azerbaijan
 Azov Sea
 Belarus
 Dnieper Basin
 Dnieper River
 Dnieper-Donets Basin
 Dniester River
 Donets Basin
 Fergana Basin
 Hissar Range
 Ishim River
 Kazakhstan
 Kulunda Steppe
 Kurama Range
 Kyrgyzstan
 Kyzylkum
 Moldova
 Moscow-Pechora Syneclise
 Ob-Irtysh Interfluve
 Polesye
 Pripet Basin
 Pskem Range
 Rudny Altai
 Russian Federation
 Scythian Platform
 Shakhdag Range
 Steppes region
 Surkhan Darya
 Surkhan Darya basin
 Syr Darya
 Tajikistan
 Timan Ridge
 Turan
 Turanian Platform
 Turkmenia
 Ukraine
 Ural River
 Urals
 Ustyurt
 Uzbekistan
 Volga-Ural region
 Voronezh-Volga Anteclise
 West Siberia
 Zangezur
 Zeravshan Range
 Zeravshan River
 Zeravshan-Hissar
RTAsia
 Europe
 USSR Academy of Sciences
SNGrouper for independent republics of the former Soviet Union including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenia, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. Term excludes Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and the Geor
communist countries  search
RTindustrialized countries
 Western World
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1981.
communities  search
RTbiotopes
 ecology
 paleoecology
 assemblages
 biocenoses
 trophic analysis
 succession
Como  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Italy
 ...Lombardy Italy
 ....Como
UFLake Como (Italy)
SNLake in NW Lombardy. As of 1993, see Como Italy for the province.
Como Italy  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Italy
 ...Lombardy Italy
 ....Como Italy
SNProvince and city in NW Lombardy.
Comoro Islands  search
BTIndian Ocean Islands
 .Comoro Islands
NTAnjouan Island
SNGroup of volcanic islands in N Mozambique Channel between Mozambique and Madagascar. Former overseas territory of France.
compact-disc read-only memory  search
USECD-ROM
compaction  search
RTprocesses
 soil mechanics
 diagenesis
 porosity
 decompaction
 bearing capacity
 hardground
 Boussinesq equation
 consolidation
 lithification
 compactness
compactness  search
RTland subsidence
 engineering geology
 physical properties
 soil mechanics
 sediments
 mechanical properties
 porosity
 compaction
 compression
 density
 consolidation
 compressibility
 compressive strength
 consolidometer tests
 overconsolidated materials
 settlement
 so
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1982.
companies  search
UFcorporations
RTeconomics
 economic geology
 industry
 company diversification
 company integration
 company mergers
 corporate policy
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1982.
company diversification  search
RTeconomics
 companies
SNUsually out-of-scope for GeoRef. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
company integration  search
RTeconomics
 companies
SNUsually out-of-scope for GeoRef. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
company mergers  search
RTeconomics
 companies
SNUsually out-of-scope for GeoRef. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
comparison  search
SNUsed as a general term through May 1978. No longer a valid term for GeoRef. See interplanetary comparison or terrestrial comparison or interlaboratory comparison or modern analogs or natural analogs if applicable.
compensation  search
SNNo longer a valid term for GeoRef. See isostatic compensation or carbonate compensation depth.
compete  search
competence  search
SNAs of 1981, no longer a valid term for GeoRef. See sedimentation, transport, hydrology, hydraulics or competent materials. From 1978-1980, was restricted to water transport of detritus. Prior to 1978, wind transport was included.
competent materials  search
RTmaterials
 rock mechanics
 soil mechanics
 deformation
complexes  search
RTigneous rocks
 metamorphic rocks
 metamorphism
 metamorphic core complexes
 ophiolite complexes
 ring complexes
 sheeted dikes
SNBefore 1981, also search structural complexes. Restricted from use with geochemistry; see complexing. For geochemistry, see complexing.
complexing  search
RTgeochemistry
 organic compounds
 metals
 processes
 ligands
components  search
RTcomposition
 principal components analysis
SNUsed as a general term.
Compositae  search
BTPlantae
 .Spermatophyta
 ..Angiospermae
 ...Dicotyledoneae
 ....Compositae
UFCompositales
RTmiospores
SNGenus.
Compositales  search
USECompositae
composite cone  search
USEstratovolcanoes
composite volcano  search
USEstratovolcanoes
composition  search
UFcontent
RTalkalic composition
 acidic composition
 calc-alkalic composition
 andesitic composition
 arkosic composition
 basaltic composition
 calcareous composition
 carbonaceous composition
 calc-silicate composition
 calcic composition
 chemical composition
 components
 dac
compounds  search
RTorganic compounds
 acids
 volatile organic compounds
 hydrogen peroxide
 polymers
SNUsed as a general term.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act  search
USESuperfund
compressi  search
compressibility  search
UFmodulus of compression
RTphysical properties
 soil mechanics
 elasticity
 plasticity
 compression
 compactness
compression  search
RTdeformation
 pressure
 flow cleavage
 biaxial tests
 lithification
 compactness
 compressibility
 compression tectonics
 decompression
 hysteresis
 tension
 yield strength
SNAs of 1982, use compression tectonics if applicable. Before 1982, compression was used for compression tectonics as well as for the general concept.
compression tectonics  search
BTtectonics
 .compression tectonics
UFtangential tectonics
RTextension tectonics
 plate tectonics
 deformation
 compression
 contraction
 thrust faults
 transpression
SNBefore 1982, search compression AND tectonics. Added to Thesaurus in 1982.
compressional waves  search
USEP-waves
compressive strength  search
RTrock mechanics
 soil mechanics
 deformation
 compactness
 strength
Compton County Quebec  search
BTCanada
 .Eastern Canada
 ..Quebec
 ...Compton County Quebec
computer animation  search
UFanimation, computer
RTcomputer programs
 data processing
 models
 simulation
 visualization
 three-dimensional models
 imagery
 graphic display
 mechanics
 two-dimensional models
SNAlso search animation and (computer programs) if applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1998.
computer data  search
USEdigital data
computer files  search
USEdigital data
computer languages  search
NTBASIC
 Fortran
 Fortran 77
 Fortran IV
UFprogramming languages
RTcomputer programs
 data processing
 Pascal
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1985.
computer methods  search
USEdata processing
computer networks  search
NTInternet
RTdata processing
 geographic information systems
 information systems
 arrays
 networks
 neural networks
 data retrieval
 information management
 microcomputers
 minicomputers
 computers
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1993.
computer processing  search
USEdata processing
computer programs  search
NTPHREEQE
 SUTRA
 WATEQF
UFsoftware
RTCREAMS
 GLEAMS
 algorithms
 data processing
 ARC/INFO
 expert systems
 neural networks
 BASIC
 computer languages
 s
 programs
 CAD
 computer animation
 Pascal
 computers
 Fortran
 Fortran 77
 Fortran IV
 genetic algorithms
 linear programming
 Macintosh
 MODPATH
 spreadsheets
computer-aided design  search
USECAD
computer-aided drafting  search
USECAD
Computerized Resources Information Bank  search
USECRIB
computers  search
NTmicrocomputers
 minicomputers
 workstations
RTcomputer programs
 data processing
 computer networks
 programs
 Macintosh
 hand calculators
 parallel processing
SNFor documents discussing the machine itself.
Conasauga Group  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Cambrian
 ....Conasauga Group
RTVirginia
 Alabama
 North Carolina
 Georgia
 Tennessee
 Maynardville Limestone
SNMiddle and Upper Cambrian. N Alabama, NE Georgia, North Carolina, E Tennessee and SW Virginia. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
concealed deposits  search
USEblind deposits
concentration  search
RTgeochemistry
 Henry's law
 solution
 solute transport
 breakthrough curves
 dilution
 localization
 saturation
 solubility
SNUsed as a general term.
concentric folds  search
BTfolds
 .concentric folds
UFparallel folds
RTsimilar folds
SNBefore 1978, also search concentric AND folds; search parallel AND folds.
concentric fractures  search
BTfractures
 .concentric fractures
SNBefore 1978, also search fractures AND concentric.
concepts  search
RTgeology
 interpretation
conceptual models  search
USEtheoretical models
conchiolin  search
BTorganic compounds
 .proteins
 ..conchiolin
Concho County Texas  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Concho County Texas
Conchostraca  search
USEBranchiopoda
Concordia Parish Louisiana  search
BTUnited States
 .Louisiana
 ..Concordia Parish Louisiana
concrete  search
BTconstruction materials
 .concrete
RTengineering geology
 weathering
 conservation
 cement materials
 concrete dams
SNIncludes use both as a commodity term and an engineering material. See List C for use as a commodity.
concrete dams  search
BTdams
 .concrete dams
RTconcrete
 gravity dams
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1982.
concretions  search
BTsedimentary structures
 .secondary structures
 ..concretions
RTsedimentary rocks
 sediments
 rhizoliths
 coal balls
 cone-in-cone
 geodes
 growth rates
 nodules
 septaria
SNAs of 1981, used for nodules other than those on the ocean floor or in lakes.
condensates  search
UFgas condensates
RTpetroleum
 gas hydrates
 natural gas
 heavy oil
SNLiquid hydrocarbon that emanates from a gas well or from the gas-cap of an oil well. Not to be used for other condensed materials.
condensation  search
RTgeochemistry
 Moon
 planetology
 planets
conditions, P-T  search
USEP-T conditions
Condrey Mountain Schist  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Condrey Mountain Schist
RTCalifornia
 Oregon
 Coast Ranges
 Klamath Mountains
SNKlamath Mountains of N California and SW Oregon. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
conduction  search
SNNot a valid term for GeoRef. See heat flow, geothermal gradient, conductivity, electrical conductivity, hydraulic conductivity, thermal conductivity, or resistivity as applicable.
conductive materia  search
conductive materials  search
RTmaterials
 engineering geology
 geophysical methods
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1981.
conductivity  search
UFspecific conductance
RTmeasurement
 apparent resistivity
 electrical logging
 resistivity
 heat flow
 electrical conductivity
 geothermal gradient
 hydraulic conductivity
 thermal conductivity
SNWhenever applicable, use electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity or hydraulic conductivity.
Condylarthra  search
BTChordata
 .Vertebrata
 ..Tetrapoda
 ...Mammalia
 ....Theria
 .....Eutheria
 ......Condylarthra
NTAcreodi
 Arctocyonia
RTUngulata
SNOrder.
cone penetration tests  search
BTpenetration tests
 .cone penetration tests
RTengineering geology
 cones
 soil mechanics
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1985.
cone-in-cone  search
BTsedimentary structures
 .secondary structures
 ..cone-in-cone
RTcones
 concretions
 septaria
Conecuh County Alabama  search
BTUnited States
 .Alabama
 ..Conecuh County Alabama
SNS Alabama.
Conejos County Colorado  search
BTUnited States
 .Colorado
 ..Conejos County Colorado
RTAlamosa River
 San Luis Valley
SNS Colorado.
Conemaugh Group  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Carboniferous
 ....Pennsylvanian
 .....Conemaugh Group
RTVirginia
 Ohio
 Pennsylvania
 Maryland
 West Virginia
 Ames Limestone
SNDivided into nine parts: Mahoning, Buffalo, Saltsburg, Grafron, Barton, Morgantown, Lonaconing, Connellsville, and one not yet named. Also includes Nadine Limestone, Woods Run Limestone, Carnahan Run Shale, and Brush Creek Limestone. W Maryland, E Ohio, P
Conemaugh River  search
BTUnited States
 .Pennsylvania
 ..Conemaugh River
RTCambria County Pennsylvania
 Indiana County Pennsylvania
 Westmoreland County Pennsylvania
SNRiver in SW Pennsylvania. Also search Conemaugh. Indexed with counties as applicable.
cones  search
RTdebris cones
 alluvial fans
 Gymnospermae
 seeds
 Coniferales
 cinder cones
 cone-in-cone
 cone penetration tests
 shatter cones
 spores
 stratovolcanoes
 submarine fans
SNUse more specific term if applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
cones, cinder  search
USEcinder cones
cones, shatter  search
USEshatter cones
conferences  search
USEsymposia
configuration  search
SNAs of 1981, no longer a valid term for GeoRef.
confined aqu  search
confined aquifers  search
BTaquifers
 .confined aquifers
RTground water
 aquitards
 artesian waters
 confining beds
 confining pressure
 deep aquifers
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1982.
confining beds  search
UFaquicludes
RTground water
 aquifers
 aquitards
 leaky aquifers
 confined aquifers
 permeability
SNAlso search aquitards if applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1998.
confining pressure  search
RTsoil mechanics
 confined aquifers
 pressure
 biaxial tests
 triaxial tests
 reservoir properties
 shear
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1993.
congelifluction  search
USEgelifluction
congelifraction  search
UFfrost bursting
 frost shattering
 frost splitting
 frost weathering
 frost wedging
 gelifraction
 gelivation
 gelivity
RTrock mechanics
 geomorphology
 soil mechanics
 cryoturbation
 frost action
 frost heaving
 patterned ground
 periglacial features
congeliturbation  search
USEcryoturbation
conglomerate  search
BTsedimentary rocks
 .clastic rocks
 ..conglomerate
NTquartz-pebble conglomerate
UFconglomerite
RTagglomerate
 breccia
 terrigenous materials
 calcrete
 ferricrete
 metaconglomerate
conglomerite  search
USEconglomerate
Congo  search
BTAfrica
 .Central Africa
 ..Congo
NTBrazzaville Congo
UFPeople's Republic of the Congo
RTCongo Basin
 Congo River
 Congo Democratic Republic
SNThis term is now limited to the present Congo (People's Republic of the Congo). Formerly it also included what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo, see Congo Democratic Republic (formerly Zaire). Before 1972, Congo Republic was used.
Congo (River)  search
USECongo River
Congo Basin  search
BTAfrica
 .Congo Basin
RTAngola
 Congo Democratic Republic
 Congo
 Zambia
 Central African Republic
SNRiver drainage basin. Indexed with countries as applicable.
Congo Democratic Republic  search
BTAfrica
 .Central Africa
 ..Congo Democratic Republic
NTBandundu Congo Democratic Republic
 Equateur Congo Democratic Republic
 Kasai
 Kinshasa Congo Democratic Republic
 Kivu Congo Democratic Republic
 Kundelungu Plateau
 Lower Zaire Congo Democratic Republic
 Shaba Congo Democratic Republic
 Upper Zaire Congo Democratic Republic
UFBelgian Congo
 Congo, Democratic Republic
 Zaire
RTKatangan Orogeny
 Congo Basin
 Congo River
 Kasai River
 Congo
 Lake Tanganyika
 Copperbelt
 Lake Albert
 Lake Edward
 Lake Kivu
SNFormerly called Belgian Congo; from 1960-1996, Zaire. Before 1972, also search Congo. Added to Thesaurus in 1998.
Congo Republic  search
SNNot a valid term for GeoRef. See Congo Democratic Republic (former Zaire) or Congo (People's Republic).
Congo River  search
BTAfrica
 .Central Africa
 ..Congo River
UFCongo (River)
 Kongo River
 Zaire River
RTAngola
 Congo Democratic Republic
 Congo
 Lower Zaire Congo Democratic Republic
 Matadi Congo Democratic Republic
SNRises as the Lualaba River in SE Congo Democratic Republic and flows N, then W, and finally SW into the Atlantic Ocean. Indexed with countries as applicable.
Congo, Democratic Republic  search
USECongo Democratic Republic
congresses  search
SNNot a valid term for GeoRef. See associations or symposia.
Coniacian  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Upper Cretaceous
 .....Coniacian
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Cretaceous
 ....Upper Cretaceous
 .....Senonian
 ......Coniacian
SNEurope. Above Turonian, below Santonian.
conical fractures  search
BTfractures
 .conical fractures
SNBefore 1978, also search fractures AND conical.
Conical Seamount  search
BTPacific Ocean
 .North Pacific
 ..Northwest Pacific
 ...Conical Seamount
RTLeg 125
SNMariana forearc, NW Pacific. This term has multiple hierarchies.
conichalcite  search
BTarsenates
 .conichalcite
Coniferae  search
BTPlantae
 .Spermatophyta
 ..Gymnospermae
 ...Coniferae
RTConiferales
Coniferales  search
BTPlantae
 .Spermatophyta
 ..Gymnospermae
 ...Coniferales
NTBuriadia
 Cupressaceae
 Picea
 Pinaceae
 Pseudotsuga
 Taxodiaceae
 Taxodium
 Tsuga
RTcones
 Coniferae
 Dadoxylon
SNBefore 1981, Coniferae was included as a narrower term.
conjugate faults  search
BTfaults
 .conjugate faults
RTstructural analysis
 joints
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1993.
conjugate folds  search
BTfolds
 .conjugate folds
RTjoints
SNBefore 1978, search folds AND conjugate.
conjugate fractures  search
BTfractures
 .conjugate fractures
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1993.
conjugate systems  search
SNAs of 1993, see conjugate faults or conjugate folds or conjugate fractures.
connate waters  search
UFformation waters
RTground water
 water
 fossil waters
 meteoric water
 pore water
Connecticut  search
BTUnited States
 .Connecticut
NTFairfield County Connecticut
 Hartford County Connecticut
 Litchfield County Connecticut
 Middlesex County Connecticut
 New Haven County Connecticut
 New London County Connecticut
 Tolland County Connecticut
 Windham County Connecticut
RTAtlantic Coastal Plain
 Avalon Zone
 Cheshire Formation
 Long Island
 Bloody Bluff Fault
 Hoosac Formation
 Connecticut River
 Connecticut Valley
 East Berlin Formation
 Fordham Gneiss
 Hampden Basalt
 Hartford Basin
 Hartland Formation
 Holyoke Basalt
 Lake Char Fault
Connecticut River  search
BTUnited States
 .Connecticut River
RTVermont
 Massachusetts
 New Hampshire
 Connecticut
SNRises in N New Hampshire and flows S emptying into Long Island Sound. Indexed with states as applicable.
Connecticut River valley  search
USEConnecticut Valley
Connecticut Valley  search
BTUnited States
 .Connecticut Valley
UFConnecticut River valley
RTVermont
 Massachusetts
 New Hampshire
 Connecticut
SNRiver valley. Before 1978, also search Connecticut. Indexed with states as applicable.
connectivity  search
RTphysical properties
 properties
 permeability
 porosity
 preferential flow
 reservoir properties
 porous materials
 topology
 tortuosity
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1995.
Connemara  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..Ireland
 ...Galway Ireland
 ....Connemara
RTGalway Granite
SNBarren, mountainous coastal region in County Galway on the Atlantic Ocean.
Conococheague Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Cambrian
 ....Upper Cambrian
 .....Conococheague Formation
RTVirginia
 Pennsylvania
 Maryland
 West Virginia
 Tennessee
 Knox Group
SNW Maryland, S central Pennsylvania, Tennessee, NW Virginia and West Virginia. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
conodont alteration index  search
USEcolor alteration index
Conodonta  search
BTmicrofossils
 .Conodonta
NTAdetognathus
 Gnathodus
 Gondolella
 Hindeodella
 Icriodus
 Idiognathodus
 Idiognathoides
 Neognathodus
 Neogondolella
 Ozarkodina
 Palmatolepis
 Panderodus
 Polygnathus
 Spathognathodus
 Streptognathodus
RTapparatus
 color alteration index
Conrad discontinuity  search
RTdiscontinuities
 seismology
 velocity
 Earth
 crust
 middle crust
conservation  search
RTenvironmental geology
 construction materials
 crushed stone
 aquifer vulnerability
 environmental analysis
 basin management
 endangered species
 building stone
 dimension stone
 cement materials
 concrete
 curation
 deforestation
 depletion
 energy conservation
 erosi
SNUsed for environmental conservation of natural resources.
consistency  search
SNAs of 1981, no longer a valid term for GeoRef. Use consistent materials if applicable.
consistency limits  search
USEAtterberg limits
consistent materials  search
RTmaterials
 engineering geology
 stiffness
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1981.
consolidated materials  search
SNAs of 1993, use consolidation, compaction, unconsolidated materials, or overconsolidated materials as applicable.
consolidation  search
RTsoil mechanics
 diagenesis
 fine-grained materials
 compaction
 cementation
 lithification
 unconsolidated materials
 compactness
 overconsolidated materials
SNBefore 1978, also search solidification if applicable.
consolidometer tests  search
RTengineering geology
 soil mechanics
 testing
 compactness
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1981.
Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling  search
USECOCORP
Consortium for Crustal Reconnaissance Using Seismic Techniques  search
USECOCRUST
Constance Lake  search
USELake Constance
constant, dielectric  search
USEdielectric constant
Constanta Romania  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Romania
 ...Constanta Romania
NTMangalia Romania
UFConstantsa
RTRomanian Dobruja
SNCounty in SE Romania. Also a city on the Black Sea.
Constantine Algeria  search
BTAfrica
 .North Africa
 ..Algeria
 ...Constantine Algeria
RTHodna Basin
SNDepartment. NE Algeria. Before 1993, also search Constantine region.
Constantine region  search
SNNo longer a valid term for GeoRef. Used as large department of French Algeria. As of 1993, see Algeria for departments.
constants, elastic  search
USEelastic constants
Constantsa  search
USEConstanta Romania
constitution  search
SNNot a valid term for GeoRef. Was sometimes used for composition; sometimes as the document.
constitutive equations  search
RTrock mechanics
 physical properties
 properties
 equations
 soil mechanics
 elasticity
 plasticity
 mathematical models
 rheology
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1985.
constructed wetlands  search
BTwetlands
 .constructed wetlands
UFartificial wetlands
RTreclamation
 environmental geology
 soils
 ecology
 land use
 hydrology
 remediation
 Hydromorphic soils
construction  search
RTdams
 construction materials
 reservoirs
 marine installations
 shorelines
 backfill
 foundations
 highways
 dredging
 railroads
 tunnels
 underground installations
construction materials  search
NTbuilding stone
 cement materials
 concrete
 crushed stone
 dimension stone
 insulation materials
UFconstructional materials
RTmaterials
 aggregate
 gravel deposits
 sand
 sands
 trap rocks
 alloys
 weathering
 conservation
 shale
 construction
 granite deposits
 limestone deposits
 marble deposits
 sandstone deposits
 refractory materials
 ornamental materials
 perlite
SNIncludes use both as a commodity term and an engineering material. See List C for use as a commodity.
constructional materials  search
USEconstruction materials
consumption  search
RTeconomics
 demand
 supply
 utilization
 water use
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1982.
contact  search
SNAs of 1981, no longer a valid term for GeoRef. See stratigraphic boundary; contact metamorphism. Before 1977, used to indicate type of metamorphism.
contact aureole  search
USEaureoles
contact metamorphism  search
BTmetamorphism
 .contact metamorphism
UFcontact phenomena
RTcountry rocks
 intrusions
 aureoles
 hornfels facies
 pneumatolysis
SNNot a valid term from 1973-1977. Also search metamorphism AND contact.
contact phenomena  search
USEcontact metamorphism
contact zone  search
USEaureoles
containment liners  search
USEdisposal barriers
contaminant plumes  search
RTpollution
 pollutants
 pump-and-treat
 upwelling
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1998.
contaminant transport  search
SNNot a valid term for GeoRef. As of 1995, use transport with pollutants.
contaminants (pollution)  search
USEpollutants
contamination  search
SNNo longer a valid term for GeoRef. Before 1978, this was a general term. After 1977, it was often, but not exclusively used with magmas. After 1994, see magma contamination or pollution.
contamination, magma  search
USEmagma contamination
contemporaneous faults  search
USEgrowth faults
content  search
USEcomposition
conterminous regions  search
RTUnited States
SNUsed to indicate regions with a common boundary. Used especially for the United States.
Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program  search
USECUSMAP
contine  search
continental  search
SNA valid term through 1977. See continental crust; continental drift; continental margin.
continental borderland  search
UFborderland, continental
RTcontinental margin
 continental shelf
 continental slope
SNThe area of the continental margin between the shoreline and the continental slope which is topographically more complex than the continental shelf.
continental crust  search
BTcrust
 .continental crust
UFcontinental type
RTtransition zones
 plate tectonics
 underplating
 microcontinents
 CALCRUST
 COCORP
 Illinois Deep Hole Project
 Lg-waves
 oceanization
 Sn-waves
SNAlso search crust AND continental type; crust AND continental; continental AND genesis. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
continental displacement  search
continental drift  search
continental dunes  search
BTdunes
 .continental dunes
BTeolian features
 .continental dunes
RTgeomorphology
 shore features
 foredunes
SNThis term has multiple hierarchies. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
continental environment  search
USEterrestrial environment
continental margin  search
UFmargin, continental
RTcontinental rise
 ocean floors
 active margins
 AMCOR
 continental shelf
 continental slope
 island arcs
 aseismic margins
 Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test
 back-arc basins
 continental borderland
 continental margin sedimentation
 continents
 cratons
 passive
SNUse term to denote both shelf and slope. Also search continental AND margin.
continental margin sedimentation  search
BTsedimentation
 .continental margin sedimentation
RTcontinental margin
 continental shelf
 continental slope
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1989.
continental migration  search
Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test  search
RToceanography
 continental margin
 Alaska
 stratigraphy
 continental shelf
 continental slope
 cores
 marine drilling
 offshore
 Atlantic Ocean
 cost
SNAlso search COST in conjunction with appropriate state or region. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
continental platform  search
USEcontinental shelf
continental rise  search
UFrise, continental
RTabyssal plains
 ocean floors
 continental margin
 marine geology
 continental slope
 HEBBLE
 nepheloid layer
Continental Scientific Drilling Program  search
UFCSDP
RTdrilling
 programs
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1989.
continental seas  search
USEepicontinental seas
continental shelf  search
NTinner shelf
 outer shelf
UFcontinental platform
 continental terrace
 shelf, continental
RTcontinental margin
 ecology
 marine geology
 AMCOR
 continental slope
 ocean circulation
 Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test
 currents
 continental borderland
 continental margin sedimentation
 continents
 epicontinental seas
 insular shelf
 ocean currents
 ocean
SNFor studies of geological processes taking place on the shelf. Restricted to the modern shelf area. Also search continental AND shelf. Indexed with both land and sea geographic terms.
continental slope  search
NTinner slope
 outer slope
UFslope, continental
RTcontinental rise
 continental margin
 ecology
 marine geology
 AMCOR
 continental shelf
 ocean circulation
 Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test
 marginal basins
 HEBBLE
 continental borderland
 continental margin sedimentation
 continents
 hemipelagic environment
SNFor modern slope area. Use slope environment for older sedimentation. Also search continental AND slope. Indexed with with geographic terms for both land and sea.
continental terrace  search
USEcontinental shelf
continental type  search
USEcontinental crust
continents  search
RTcontinental margin
 continental shelf
 continental slope
 Earth
 continental drift
 island arcs
 isostasy
 islands
 cratons
 epicontinental seas
 epeirogeny
 marginal seas
 supercontinents
 tectonic platforms
SNUsed for discussions of continents as units (e.g. geometry of a continent).
continuous filters  search
RTfilters
 analog filters
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1981.
continuous materials  search
RTmaterials
 engineering geology
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1981.
contour maps  search
BTmaps
 .contour maps
RTtopographic maps
 structure contour maps
contourite  search
RTsedimentary rocks
 clastic sediments
 marine sediments
 sediments
 clastic rocks
 terrigenous materials
SNIndexed with clastic sediments and/or clastic rocks as applicable.
Contra Costa County California  search
BTUnited States
 .California
 ..Contra Costa County California
RTGreenville Fault
 San Francisco Bay region
 San Pablo Bay
SNOn San Francisco Bay in W California.
contraction  search
RTprocesses
 compression tectonics
SNUsed as a general term.
control, erosion  search
USEerosion control
control, production  search
USEproduction control
controlled-source audio-magnetotelluric technique  search
USECSAMT methods
controls  search
RTquality control
 mineral deposits, genesis
 erosion control
 climatic controls
 geomorphologic controls
 geochemical controls
 hydrogeological controls
 lithologic controls
 magmatism
 mechanical controls
 metallotects
 paleogeographic controls
 sediment supply
 slope
Contwoyto Lake  search
BTCanada
 .Western Canada
 ..Mackenzie District Northwest Territories
 ...Contwoyto Lake
SNCentral Northwest Territories. This term has multiple hierarchies. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Conularida  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Coelenterata
 ..Scyphozoa
 ...Conularida
convection  search
RTmantle
 oceanography
 plate tectonics
 advection
 aerosols
 atmosphere
 meteorology
 angular momentum
 torque
 delamination
 tectonophysics
 convection currents
 heat flow
 boundary conditions
 downwelling
 Rayleigh number
 Reynolds number
 subsidence
convection cells  search
USEconvection currents
convection currents  search
BTcurrents
 .convection currents
UFconvection cells
RTmantle
 plate tectonics
 convection
 atmosphere
 tectonophysics
 density
convergence  search
SNAs of 1981, no longer a valid term for GeoRef. Use plate convergence if applicable.
Converse County Wyoming  search
BTUnited States
 .Wyoming
 ..Converse County Wyoming
SNE Wyoming.
conversion  search
SNUsed as a general term.
convoluted beds  search
BTsedimentary structures
 .soft sediment deformation
 ..convoluted beds
UFbeds, convoluted
 convoluted deformation
RTturbidity current structures
 slump structures
SNAlso index turbidity current structures if applicable (See list K.)
convoluted deformation  search
USEconvoluted beds
Conway County Arkansas  search
BTUnited States
 .Arkansas
 ..Conway County Arkansas
Coo  search
SNNot a valid term for GeoRef. Use Kos for the Greek island.
Cooch Behar India  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...West Bengal India
 ....Cooch Behar India
SNCity just N of Bangladesh in West Bengal, E India.
Cook County Georgia  search
BTUnited States
 .Georgia
 ..Cook County Georgia
SNS Georgia.
Cook County Illinois  search
BTUnited States
 .Illinois
 ..Cook County Illinois
NTChicago Illinois
SNNE Illinois.
Cook County Minnesota  search
BTUnited States
 .Minnesota
 ..Cook County Minnesota
RTSaganaga Lake
SNNE Minnesota.
Cook Inlet  search
RTAlaska
 Southwestern Alaska
 Anchorage Alaska
 Southern Alaska
 Augustine
 Knik Arm
 Turnagain Arm
SNArm of the Pacific Ocean W of Kenai Peninsula in S Alaska. Indexed with Southern Alaska or Southwestern Alaska as applicable.
Cook Islands  search
BTOceania
 .Polynesia
 ..Cook Islands
UFSouthern Cook Islands
RTEast Pacific Ocean Islands
 Pacific Ocean
SNGroup of 15 islands W of French Polynesia and E of Samoa and Tonga islands.
Cook Mountain Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Paleogene
 ....Eocene
 .....middle Eocene
 ......Cook Mountain Formation
RTLouisiana
 Texas
 Claiborne Group
SNIn Claiborne Group. NW Louisiana, S and E Texas.
Cooke County Texas  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Cooke County Texas
cookeite  search
BTsilicates
 .sheet silicates
 ..chlorite group
 ...cookeite
RTaluminosilicates
 lepidolite
cooling  search
RTthermochronology
 temperature
 heating
SNUsed as a general term.
Cooma Australia  search
BTAustralasia
 .Australia
 ..New South Wales Australia
 ...Cooma Australia
SNTown in SE New South Wales.
Coon Butte  search
USEMeteor Crater
Cooper Basin  search
UFCooper's Creek basin
RTQueensland Australia
 South Australia
 Australia
SNIndexed with states as applicable.
Cooper County Missouri  search
BTUnited States
 .Missouri
 ..Cooper County Missouri
Cooper's Creek basin  search
USECooper Basin
cooperation, international  search
USEinternational cooperation
cooperative learning  search
BTeducation
 .cooperative learning
UFcollaborative learning
SNExercises structured so group members both need each other to succeed and are individually accountable for material. Includes collaborative learning for which students work interdependently and the classroom authority rests more with student groups rather
coordinate systems  search
RTsystems
coordinates  search
RTMoon
 cartography
 maps
 geodesy
 geodetic coordinates
SNFor geographic coordinates, see specific area.
coordination  search
RTcrystal chemistry
Coorong Lagoon  search
BTAustralasia
 .Australia
 ..South Australia
 ...Coorong Lagoon
UFThe Coorong
SNOff Lacepede Bay of Indian Ocean in SE South Australia.
Coos Bay  search
BTUnited States
 .Oregon
 ..Coos County Oregon
 ...Coos Bay
RTNortheast Pacific
SNInlet on coast of Coos County on the Pacific Ocean in SW Oregon.
Coos County New Hampshire  search
BTw Hampshire
 .Coos County New Hampshire
RTMount Adams
 Mount Jefferson
 Rangeley Lakes
SNN New Hampshire.
Coos County Oregon  search
BTUnited States
 .Oregon
 ..Coos County Oregon
NTCoos Bay
SNSW Oregon.
Coosa County Alabama  search
BTUnited States
 .Alabama
 ..Coosa County Alabama
RTMartin Lake
SNCentral Alabama.
Copenhagen Denmark  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..Scandinavia
 ...Denmark
 ....Copenhagen Denmark
UFKobenhavn Denmark
RTZealand
SNCounty and city on Zealand Island in E Denmark.
Copepoda  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Arthropoda
 ..Mandibulata
 ...Crustacea
 ....Copepoda
Copernicus Crater  search
RTMoon
 Mars
SNSearch in combination with Moon or Mars. Also search Copernicus in combination with Moon or Mars. Indexed with Moon or Mars as applicable.
Copiah County Mississippi  search
BTUnited States
 .Mississippi
 ..Copiah County Mississippi
copiapite  search
BTsulfates
 .copiapite
Copiapo Chile  search
BTSouth America
 .Chile
 ..Atacama Chile
 ...Copiapo Chile
UFSan Francisco de la Selva
SNTown in N central Chile. Also search Selva.
Copiapo River  search
BTSouth America
 .Chile
 ..Copiapo River
RTAtacama Chile
SNN central Chile. Before 1995, also search Copiapo Chile. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.
Copley Greenstone  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Devonian
 ....Middle Devonian
 .....Copley Greenstone
RTCalifornia
 Balaklala Rhyolite
SNN California. Conformably underlies Balaklala Rhyolite and interfingers with it in some areas. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
copper  search
BTmetals
 .copper
UFCu
RTcopper ores
 native elements
 chalcophile elements
 copper minerals
 heavy metals
 bornite
 chalcocite
 chalcopyrite
 enargite
 porphyry copper
SNChemical element. Use copper ores for copper as a commodity.
Copper Age  search
USEChalcolithic
Copper Canyon  search
RTLander County Nevada
SNCanyon in Lander County in N central Nevada. Indexed with county or regions as applicable.
Copper Harbor Conglomerate  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Precambrian
 ..Proterozoic
 ...Keweenawan
 ....Copper Harbor Conglomerate
RTMichigan
SNUpper Keweenawan. Keweenaw County on the Upper Peninsula, NW Michigan.
copper minerals  search
RTminerals
 copper ores
 azurite
 bornite
 copper
 chalcocite
 chalcopyrite
 chrysocolla
 enargite
 covellite
 cuprite
 luzonite
 malachite
 tennantite
 tetrahedrite
 turquoise
Copper Mountain  search
RTWyoming
 California
 British Columbia
SNLocation of copper deposit in British Columbia. Also used for uranium deposit in Wyoming. Also used in other locations. Indexed with province, state and county or country as applicable.
copper ores  search
BTmetal ores
 .copper ores
RTAgrokipia Deposit
 base metals
 Allarechenskiy
 Ashio Mine
 azurite
 copper minerals
 besshi-type deposits
 Blackbird mining district
 bornite
 copper
 chalcocite
 chalcopyrite
 Chinkuashih Mine
 chrysocolla
 covellite
 cuprite
 Coronation Mine
 cyprus-type deposits
 enarg
SNCommodity. See List C.
copper pyrites  search
USEchalcopyrite
Copper River basin  search
RTSouthern Alaska
 Talkeetna Formation
SNS central Alaska. Indexed with Southern Alaska or regions as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
copper sulfides  search
BTsulfides
 .copper sulfides
RTchalcocite
 covellite
 gossan
Copperbelt  search
RTCongo Democratic Republic
 Zambia
SNArea in S Zambia and Congo Democratic Republic. Indexed with country or region as applicable.
Coppermine River  search
BTCanada
 .Western Canada
 ..Mackenzie District Northwest Territories
 ...Coppermine River
SNFlows into Coronation Gulf in N Mackenzie District, E central Northwest Territories. This term has multiple hierarchies.
coprolites  search
RTVertebrata
 biogenic structures
 ichnofossils
 sedimentary structures
 fecal pellets
 lebensspuren
coquimbite  search
BTsulfates
 .coquimbite
Coquimbo Chile  search
BTSouth America
 .Chile
 ..Coquimbo Chile
SNProvince and city in central Chile.
coquina  search
BTsedimentary rocks
 .carbonate rocks
 ..limestone
 ...coquina
RTclastic sediments
 terrigenous materials
 carbonate sediments
coral pinnacle  search
USEpinnacle reefs
coral reefs  search
USEreefs
Coral Sea  search
BTPacific Ocean
 .South Pacific
 ..Southwest Pacific
 ...Coral Sea
NTCoral Sea Basin
 Great Barrier Reef
 Queensland Plateau
 Solomon Sea
RTDSDP Site 287
 Leg 133
 Leg 21
 Leg 30
 Maryborough Basin
 ODP Site 811
 ODP Site 812
 ODP Site 813
 ODP Site 814
 ODP Site 815
 ODP Site 816
 ODP Site 817
 ODP Site 818
 ODP Site 819
 ODP Site 820
 ODP Site 821
 ODP Site 822
 ODP Site 823
 ODP Site 824
 ODP Site 826
 Papuan
SNBetween Queensland, Australia, on the W and New Hebrides and New Caledonia on the E. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Coral Sea Basin  search
BTPacific Ocean
 .South Pacific
 ..Southwest Pacific
 ...Coral Sea
 ....Coral Sea Basin
RTDSDP Site 287
 DSDP Site 210
SNBetween NE Queensland and Solomon Islands. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Corallimorpharia  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Coelenterata
 ..Anthozoa
 ...Zoantharia
 ....Corallimorpharia
SNOrder.
Corallinaceae  search
BTPlantae
 .algae
 ..Rhodophyta
 ...Corallinaceae
NTArchaeolithothamnium
 Lithophyllum
 Lithothamnium
RTmicrofossils
SNIndexed with microfossils if applicable.
Corbieres  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Aude France
 ....Corbieres
UFCorbieres Mountains
RTFrench Pyrenees
SNOutliers of the E Pyrenees in S Aude.
Corbieres Mountains  search
USECorbieres
Cordaitales  search
BTPlantae
 .Spermatophyta
 ..Gymnospermae
 ...Cordaitales
NTCordaites
RTDadoxylon
Cordaites  search
BTPlantae
 .Spermatophyta
 ..Gymnospermae
 ...Cordaitales
 ....Cordaites
SNGenus.
Cordevolian  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Triassic
 ....Cordevolian
RTLower Triassic
 Middle Triassic
SNEurope; Triassic. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
cordierite  search
BTsilicates
 .ring silicates
 ..cordierite
RTaluminosilicates
Cordillera  search
SNAs of 1981, no longer a valid term for GeoRef. See North American Cordillera; Canadian Cordillera.
Cordillera Betica  search
USEBetic Cordillera
Cordillera Central  search
USECentral Cordillera
Cordillera de la Costa  search
RTPeru
 Venezuela
 Chile
 Western Cordillera
SNAlong Caribbean Sea in central N Venezuela. Also a feature in Chile and Peru. Indexed with country and mountain ranges as applicable.
Cordillera Marianica  search
USEBetic Cordillera
Cordillera Occidental  search
USEWestern Cordillera
Cordillera Oriental  search
USEEastern Cordillera
Cordilleran Geosyncline  search
RTgeosynclines
 Cordilleran Orogeny
SNBefore 1978, search geosynclines AND Cordilleran.
Cordilleran ice sheet  search
RTNorth America
 North American Cordillera
SNNorth American Cordillera. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Cordilleran Orogeny  search
RTorogeny
 tectonics
 North America
 Cordilleran Geosyncline
 Laramide Orogeny
SNBefore 1978, search Cordilleran AND orogeny.
Cordoba  search
SNNo longer a valid term for GeoRef. Referred to cities in Spain and in Argentina. Before 1981, also referred to the province in Spain and the department in Argentina. As of 1993, see Cordoba Argentina and Cordoba Spain.
Cordoba Argentina  search
BTSouth America
 .Argentina
 ..Cordoba Argentina
NTChanares Argentina
RTPampean Mountains
SNProvince including the city in central Argentina. From 1981-1992, also search Cordoba Department AND Argentina.
Cordoba Spain  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Iberian Peninsula
 ...Spain
 ....Andalusia Spain
 .....Cordoba Spain
NTLos Pedroches Spain
 Valsequillo Spain
SNIn S central Spain. From 1981-1992, also search Cordoba Province and Spain.
core  search
NTinner core
 outer core
RTmantle
 seismology
 transition zones
 geophysics
 magnetic field
 Earth
 phase transitions
 crust
 lithosphere
 Mohorovicic discontinuity
 tectonophysics
 heat flow
 core-mantle boundary
 dynamos
 heat sources
 interior
 magma oceans
 magnetohydrodynamics
SNUsed for the Earth's core and, when applicable, the cores of the other planets and the Moon.
core complexes  search
USEmetamorphic core complexes
core-mantle boundary  search
core-mantle couple  search
core-mantle interface  search
cores  search
UFdrill cores
RTwell-logging
 AMCOR
 Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test
 boreholes
 cuttings
 Illinois Deep Hole Project
 ice cores
 Iceland Research Drilling Project
SNBefore 1978, also search borings.
Corinth Greece  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Greece
 ...Peloponnesus Greece
 ....Corinth Greece
RTGulf of Corinth
SNCity and department on Gulf of Corinth in NE Peloponnesus.
Coriolis force  search
SNAs of 1993, no longer a valid term for GeoRef. Usually out-of-scope. Used with ocean circulation.
Cork Ireland  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..Ireland
 ...Cork Ireland
UFCounty Cork Ireland
SNCounty including the city on the Atlantic Ocean in S Ireland.
Cormeilles-en-Parisis France  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Val-d'Oise France
 ....Cormeilles-en-Parisis France
SNTown just N of Paris in N central France.
Cornubian Batholith  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..United Kingdom
 ...Great Britain
 ....England
 .....Cornubian Batholith
RTDevonshire England
 Cornwall England
 South-West England
SNSW England. Indexed with counties as applicable.
Cornwall England  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..United Kingdom
 ...Great Britain
 ....England
 .....Cornwall England
NTLand's End
 Padstow England
RTTamar Estuary
 Cornubian Batholith
 Tamar Valley
SNFormer county in extreme SW England. Became part of Cornwall and Isles of Scilly in 1974.
Cornwallis Island  search
BTCanada
 .Western Canada
 ..Cornwallis Island
BTCanada
 .Northwest Territories
 ..Franklin District Northwest Territories
 ...Queen Elizabeth Islands
 ....Cornwallis Island
RTRead Bay Formation
SNOne of the Parry Islands in central Franklin District, N central Northwest Territories. This term has multiple hierarchies.
Coromandel Coast  search
BTAsia
 .Indian Peninsula
 ..India
 ...Coromandel Coast
RTAndhra Pradesh India
 Tamil Nadu India
 Pondicherry India
 South Arcot
SNSE coast from Point Calimere in the S to mouths of the Krishna River in Andhra Pradesh. Before 1978, also search Coromandel. Indexed with states as applicable.
Coromandel Peninsula  search
BTAustralasia
 .New Zealand
 ..Coromandel Peninsula
RTNorth Island
SNENE of Auckland. Before 1978, also search Coromandel. Also index North Island.
corona  search
SNAs of 1993, no longer a valid term for GeoRef. Usually out-of-scope. Used with astrophysics and solar physics. For coronas in rocks, use reaction rims.
coronadite  search
BToxides
 .coronadite
RThollandite
Coronado National Forest  search
BTUnited States
 .Coronado National Forest
RTHidalgo County New Mexico
 Cochise County Arizona
 Graham County Arizona
 national forests
 Pima County Arizona
 Santa Cruz County Arizona
SNSE Arizona and SW New Mexico. Indexed with counties as applicable.
coronae  search
RTremote sensing
 Venus
 arcuate structures
 Uranus
 surface features
SNOvoid features on other planetary bodies. Before 1993, also search corona and planet name. Added to Thesaurus in 1993.
Coronation Mine  search
RTmines
 Saskatchewan
 copper ores
 zinc ores
SNCopper and zinc ores. E central Saskatchewan. Indexed with province or region as applicable.
Corophioides  search
BTichnofossils
 .Corophioides
corporate policy  search
RTeconomics
 companies
 policy
SNUsually out-of-scope for GeoRef. Added to Thesaurus in 1982.
corporations  search
USEcompanies
Corpus Christi Bay  search
RTTexas
 Nueces County Texas
 San Patricio County Texas
SNInlet of Gulf of Mexico between Nueces and San Patricio counties, SE Texas. Indexed with state and counties as applicable.
corrections  search
RTaccuracy
 errors
 topographic correction
 static corrections
SNUsed as a general term.
correlation  search
UFcorrelation tables
 stratigraphic correlation
RTstratigraphy
 biochronology
 event stratigraphy
SNGeneral term appropriate to a large number of topics. Before 1969, also search correlation tables; correlations.
correlation coefficient  search
BTstatistical analysis
 .correlation coefficient
UFcoefficient, correlation
correlation tables  search
USEcorrelation
correlations  search
SNNot a valid GeoRef index term after 1970. Now use correlation.
corrensite  search
BTsilicates
 .sheet silicates
 ..clay minerals
 ...corrensite
RTaluminosilicates
correspondence analysis  search
BTstatistical analysis
 .correspondence analysis
RTanalysis
Correze France  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Correze France
RTBrive Basin
 Millevaches Plateau
SNDepartment in S central France.
Corrientes Argentina  search
BTSouth America
 .Argentina
 ..Corrientes Argentina
SNProvince including the city between the Parana River and the Uruguay River.
corrosion  search
UFchemical erosion
RTbioerosion
 erosion
 geomorphology
 embayments
 damage
 destruction
 chemical weathering
 pits
 hydrogen peroxide
Corse du Sud France  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Corsica
 ....Corse du Sud France
SNDepartment in the southern part of Corsica.
Corsica  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Corsica
NTCorse du Sud France
 Haute-Corse France
RTMediterranean region
 Mediterranean Sea
SNIsland in the Mediterranean Sea. After 1992, use Haute-Corse France or Corse du Sud France for the departments. Before 1993, also included use for the departments.
Corson County South Dakota  search
BTUnited States
 .South Dakota
 ..Corson County South Dakota
Cortez Colorado  search
BTUnited States
 .Colorado
 ..Montezuma County Colorado
 ...Cortez Colorado
SNCity in extreme SW Colorado.
Cortez Mountains  search
RTNevada
 Eureka County Nevada
SNEureka County in central Nevada. Also search Cortez. Indexed with county or regions as applicable.
Cortina  search
SNNot a valid term for GeoRef. See Cortina D'Ampezzo Italy.
Cortina D'Ampezzo Italy  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Italy
 ...Veneto Italy
 ....Cortina D'Ampezzo Italy
UFCortina Italy
SNTown in Dolomites in N Veneto, N Italy.
Cortina Italy  search
USECortina D'Ampezzo Italy
Cortland County New York  search
BTUnited States
 .New York
 ..Cortland County New York
Cortlandt Complex  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Ordovician
 ....Upper Ordovician
 .....Cortlandt Complex
RTNew York
SNE New York. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
corundum  search
BToxides
 .corundum
RTcorundum deposits
 gems
 alumina
 aluminum oxides
 amethyst
 rubies
 sapphire
SNAs of 1981, use corundum deposits for corundum as a commodity (abrasives).
corundum deposits  search
RTabrasives
 industrial minerals
 corundum
SNFor corundum as a gem, use corundum and gems. Commodity. See List C. For corundum as a gem, index the specific type of gem.
Coryell County Texas  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Coryell County Texas
Corylus  search
BTPlantae
 .Spermatophyta
 ..Angiospermae
 ...Dicotyledoneae
 ....Corylus
RTpalynomorphs
SNGenus.
Corynexochida  search
BTInvertebrata
 .Arthropoda
 ..Trilobitomorpha
 ...Trilobita
 ....Corynexochida
Cos  search
SNNot a valid term for GeoRef. Use Kos for the Greek island.
cosalite  search
BTsulfosalts
 .sulfobismuthites
 ..cosalite
coseismic  search
coseismic processes  search
RTseismic response
 earthquakes
 faults
 deformation
 effects
 ground motion
 liquefaction
 stress drops
 teleseismic signals
SNAlso search coseismic phenomena. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.
Cosenza Italy  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Italy
 ...Calabria Italy
 ....Cosenza Italy
SNTown and province in W central Calabria.
Coshocton County Ohio  search
BTUnited States
 .Ohio
 ..Coshocton County Ohio
SNCentral Ohio.
cosmic dust  search
UFinterstellar dust
 zodiacal dust
RTplanetology
 particles
 interplanetary space
 extraterrestrial geology
 asteroids
 meteoroids
 dust
 interplanetary dust
cosmic rays  search
UFrays, cosmic
RTMoon
 particles
 exposure age
 albedo
 interplanetary space
 alpha rays
 beta rays
 gamma rays
 magnetic field
 extraterrestrial geology
 asteroids
 cosmogenic elements
 electromagnetic radiation
 intensity
 particle tracks
 particle-track dating
 protons
 radiation damag
cosmic-ray methods  search
SNUse cosmic rays or particle-track dating as applicable.
cosmic-ray tracks  search
USEparticle tracks
cosmochemistry  search
cosmochronology  search
RTabsolute age
 geochronology
 planetology
 relative age
 extraterrestrial geology
 cosmochemistry
 solar system
 expanding universe theory
 resurfacing
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1985.
cosmogenic elements  search
RTisotopes
 cosmic rays
 cosmochemistry
 chemical elements
SNBefore 1978, search cosmogenic; cosmogenic AND isotopes.
cosmogeny  search
SNUse cosmochronology, cosmogenic elements or cosmochemistry.
cosmolites  search
USEmeteorites
cosmopolitan taxa  search
UFtaxa, cosmopolitan
RTecology
 paleoecology
 biogeography
 distribution
 endemic taxa
 global
SNAlso search cosmopolitanism. Before 1978, also search cosmopolitan.
Coso Hot Springs  search
USECoso Hot Springs KGRA
Coso Hot Springs KGRA  search
BTUnited States
 .California
 ..Inyo County California
 ...Coso Hot Springs KGRA
UFCoso Hot Springs
 KGRA, Coso Hot Springs
RTgeothermal fields
SNKnown Geothermal Resources Area. Added to Thesaurus in 1981.
Coso Range  search
BTUnited States
 .California
 ..Inyo County California
 ...Coso Range
SNS California. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
cost  search
RTeconomics
 Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test
 price
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1981.
Costa Rica  search
BTCentral America
 .Costa Rica
NTArenal
 Irazu
 Nicoya Peninsula
 Poas
RTAguacate Group
 Central Cordillera
 Chortis Block
 Costa Rica earthquake 1991
 Nicoya Complex
 ODP Site 1039
 ODP Site 1040
 ODP Site 1041
 ODP Site 1042
 ODP Site 1043
Costa Rica earthquake 1991  search
BTearthquakes
 .Costa Rica earthquake 1991
UFLimon earthquake 1991
 Valle de la Estrella earthquake 1991
RTCosta Rica
SNEpicenter in Limon province area, SE Costa Rica. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.
Costa Rica Rift  search
BTPacific Ocean
 .East Pacific
 ..Costa Rica Rift
RTEquatorial Pacific
 Leg 148
SNE Equatorial Pacific, off Colombia. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Costilla County Colorado  search
BTUnited States
 .Colorado
 ..Costilla County Colorado
Cote d'Or France  search
USECote-d'Or France
Cote-d'Or France  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Cote-d'Or France
NTDijon France
 Pouilly-en-Auxois France
UFCote d'Or France
RTMorvan
SNDepartment in E central France.
Cotentin Peninsula  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Manche France
 ....Cotentin Peninsula
SNPeninsula in Normandy jutting into the English Channel in N Manche, NW France.
Cotes-du-Nord France  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..France
 ...Cotes-du-Nord France
RTBrittany
SNDepartment on the English Channel in N Brittany.
Cotswold Hills  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..United Kingdom
 ...Great Britain
 ....England
 .....Cotswold Hills
UFCotswolds
RTAvon England
 Gloucestershire England
 Worcestershire England
SNRange of hills in Gloucestershire, Avon, and Hereford and Worcester in W central England. Indexed with counties as applicable.
Cotswolds  search
USECotswold Hills
Cott  search
Cottageville Field  search
BTUnited States
 .West Virginia
 ..Jackson County West Virginia
 ...Cottageville Field
RToil and gas fields
SNW West Virginia. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Cottbus Bezirk  search
SNNo longer a valid term for GeoRef. District in SE East Germany. Before 1981, search Cottbus. As of 1993, see Saxony Germany and Upper Lusatia.
Cottbus Germany  search
BTEurope
 .Central Europe
 ..Germany
 ...Brandenburg Germany
 ....Cottbus Germany
SNCity in Brandenburg, E Germany. From 1981-1992, Cottbus was used for this city. Before 1981, Cottbus also included the East German district.
Cottian Alps  search
BTEurope
 .Western Europe
 ..Cottian Alps
BTEurope
 .Alps
 ..Western Alps
 ...Cottian Alps
NTDora Maira Massif
RTItaly
 France
 Dauphine Alps
 Piedmont Alps
SNDivision of Western Alps. This term has multiple hierarchies. Indexed with countries as applicable.
Cottle County Texas  search
BTUnited States
 .Texas
 ..Cottle County Texas
Cotton County Oklahoma  search
BTUnited States
 .Oklahoma
 ..Cotton County Oklahoma
SNSW Oklahoma.
Cotton Valley Group  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Mesozoic
 ...Jurassic
 ....Upper Jurassic
 .....Cotton Valley Group
RTLouisiana
 Mississippi
 Texas
 Arkansas
 Bossier Formation
 Schuler Formation
SNIncludes Schuler Formation, and Bossier Formation. S Arkansas, N Louisiana, W Mississippi, and E Texas.
Cottonwood County Minnesota  search
BTUnited States
 .Minnesota
 ..Cottonwood County Minnesota
Cottonwood Limestone  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Permian
 ....Cottonwood Limestone
RTOklahoma
 Nebraska
 Kansas
 Council Grove Group
SNIn Council Grove Group. E Kansas, SE Nebraska, and central northern Oklahoma.
Cotylosauria  search
BTChordata
 .Vertebrata
 ..Tetrapoda
 ...Reptilia
 ....Anapsida
 .....Cotylosauria
NTCaptorhinomorpha
 Pareiasauria
SNOrder.
Coulomb's modulus  search
USEshear modulus
Council Gro  search
Council Grove Group  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Permian
 ....Council Grove Group
RTOklahoma
 Colorado
 Nebraska
 Kansas
 Cottonwood Limestone
 Eskridge Shale
 Red Eagle Limestone
 Roca Formation
 Stearns Shale
SNLower Permian. E Kansas, SE Nebraska, N Oklahoma, Colorado. In Kansas includes (ascending) Foraker Limestone, Johnson Shale, Red Eagle Limestone, Roca Formation, Grenola Limestone, Eskridge Shale, Beattie Limestone, Stearns Shale, Bader Limestone, Easly C
country rocks  search
RTigneous rocks
 magmas
 rocks
 assimilation
 magma contamination
 hybridization
 inclusions
 intrusions
 aureoles
 contact metamorphism
 host rocks
 wall rocks
 wall-rock alteration
counts  search
SNUsed in subfile N. See granulometry; statistical analysis.
County Cork Ireland  search
USECork Ireland
coupled processes  search
USEcoupling
coupling  search
UFcoupled processes
RTgeochemistry
 torque
 chemical reactions
 core-mantle boundary
 Earth-Moon couple
 induced polarization
 inductively coupled plasma methods
 seismicity
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1993.
Coupon Bight  search
RTFlorida
 Florida Keys
 Big Pine Key
SNFlorida Keys area. Indexed with counties or regions as applicable.
Courland Spit  search
BTEurope
 .Baltic region
 ..Courland Spit
UFKurland Spit
RTLithuania
 Kaliningrad Russian Federation
SNNarrow sandspit on the Baltic Sea in both Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania.
Couvinian  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Devonian
 ....Middle Devonian
 .....Couvinian
RTEifelian
SNEurope. Above Emsian, below Givetian.
Couy-Sancerre Borehole  search
USESancerre-Couy Borehole
covariance analysis  search
BTstatistical analysis
 .covariance analysis
RTanalysis
 geostatistics
 variance analysis
 semivariograms
SNAdded to Thesaurus in 1993.
Covasna Romania  search
BTEurope
 .Southern Europe
 ..Romania
 ...Transylvania
 ....Covasna Romania
SNCounty in SE Transylvania.
covelline  search
USEcovellite
covellite  search
BTsulfides
 .covellite
UFcovelline
RTcopper ores
 copper minerals
 copper sulfides
cover tectonics  search
BTtectonics
 .cover tectonics
RTsedimentary cover
 neotectonics
 overburden
SNBefore 1998, also search (overburden OR sedimentary cover) AND (tectonics). Added to Thesaurus in 1998.
cover, sedimentary  search
USEsedimentary cover
Covington County Alabama  search
BTUnited States
 .Alabama
 ..Covington County Alabama
Covington County Mississippi  search
BTUnited States
 .Mississippi
 ..Covington County Mississippi
Cow Head Group  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Paleozoic
 ...Cow Head Group
RTCambrian
 Ordovician
 Newfoundland Island
SNW Newfoundland. Indexed with ages as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Coweta County Georgia  search
BTUnited States
 .Georgia
 ..Coweta County Georgia
Cowley County Kansas  search
BTUnited States
 .Kansas
 ..Cowley County Kansas
NTArkansas City Kansas
SNS Kansas.
Cowlitz County Washington  search
BTUnited States
 .Washington
 ..Cowlitz County Washington
RTCowlitz River
 Toutle River
SNOn the Columbia River in SW Washington.
Cowlitz Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Paleogene
 ....Eocene
 .....upper Eocene
 ......Cowlitz Formation
RTWashington
 Oregon
SNSW Washington and NW Oregon. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Cowlitz River  search
BTUnited States
 .Washington
 ..Cowlitz River
RTColumbia River
 Cowlitz County Washington
 Toutle River
 Lewis County Washington
SNTributary of the Columbia River in SW Washington. Indexed with counties as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Coyote Creek Fault  search
BTUnited States
 .California
 ..Coyote Creek Fault
SNW California.
Coyote Lake  search
RTMojave Desert
 San Bernardino County California
SNSE California. Indexed with county or regions as applicable. Added to Thesaurus in 1985.
Coyote Lake earthquake 1979  search
BTearthquakes
 .Coyote Lake earthquake 1979
RTCalifornia
 Santa Clara County California
SNEpicenter at Coyote Lake, Santa Clara County, Central California. Added to Thesaurus in 1989.
Cozy Dell Formation  search
BTChronostratigraphic Units
 .Phanerozoic
 ..Cenozoic
 ...Paleogene
 ....Eocene
 .....Cozy Dell Formation
RTCalifornia
 upper Eocene
 middle Eocene
 Tejon Formation
SNSometimes a member of Tejon Formation. SW California. Added to Thesaurus in 1995.