. Morris, Julie D. et al. (2001): Ocean Drilling Program; Leg 205 scientific prospectus; fluid flow and subduction fluxes across the Costa Rica convergent margin; implications for the seismogenic zone and subduction factory
Morris, Julie D.
Washington University, St. Louis, MO, United States
Villinger, Heinrich W.
Universitaet Bremen, Federal Republic of Germany
Ocean Drilling Program, United States
Ocean Drilling Program; Leg 205 scientific prospectus; fluid flow and subduction fluxes across the Costa Rica convergent margin; implications for the seismogenic zone and subduction factory
Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, United States
The character of the incoming plate subducting at convergent margins and the processes affecting it as it passes below the shallow forearc may play a major role in the nature and extent of hazardous interplate seismicity, as well as the magnitude of volcanism and chemistry of lavas produced in the overlying volcanic arc. The fate of incoming sediments and ocean crust and of their associated volatiles as they pass through the shallow levels of a subduction zone (0-50 km depth) has profound effects on the behavior of the seismogenic zone, which produces most of the world's destructive earthquakes and tsunamis. Fluid pressure and sediment porosity influence fault localization, deformation style and strength, and may control the updip limit of the seismogenic zone. Fluids within both fault zones and sediments underthrust at the trench affect early structural development and are a key agent in transport of chemical species. The mineralogy and chemistry of any subducted sediments and their dehydration reactions during subduction may control the physical properties of the deeper subduction interface and, hence, the updip and downdip limits of the seismogenic zone wherein interplate earthquakes are generated. Science objectives for Leg 205 have two primary foci. The first is the igneous and alteration history of the basement at reference Site 1039R-A on the incoming plate. The second is characterizing and monitoring the three hydrological systems: in basement at Site 1039R-A, in the uppermost section of the subducting sediment section at Site 1040R-A, and along the decollement and upper conduit at Sites 1040R-B and -C. These goals will be accomplished by (1) limited coring of selected intervals, (2) downhole temperature measurements, (3) logging at Site 1039R-A, and (4) installation of long term observatories (CORKs) to monitor temperature and pressure and to sample fluids and gases in each of the hydrologic systems. Time series of fluid composition in the sealed-off intervals will be obtained by using osmotic fluid samplers. These samplers will be recovered for analysis of the water samples 1 to 2 yr postinstallation. Science objectives for Site 1039R-A are: (1) quantifying the amount of carbonate in the subducting sediment and uppermost altered basaltic crust to evaluate carbon recycling through the arc; (2) determining the distribution of metalliferous carbonates above the sill and above basement to construct element fluxes into the trench and to constrain their flux out of the basement; (3) determining the extent of sill emplacement and their contribution to the bulk composition of the subducting igneous crust; (4) determining the igneous and alteration mineralogy, petrology, and geochemistry in the uppermost 100 m of the upper crust and determining subduction fluxes therefrom; (5) determining physical properties in the core and borehole, relevant to fluid flow and deformation such as porosity, density, permeability, fracture distribution, orientation, and strength; and (6) installing a modified CORK within the cored upper basement section to sample fluids and to monitor temperature and pressure.
North:9.4000 West:86.1000 East:
86.1200 South:9.3800 Keywords:
Oceanography; Solid-earth geophysics; Central America; continental margin; cores; CORK observatories; Costa Rica; crust; decollement; East Pacific; fluid dynamics; Leg 205; Middle America Trench; North Pacific; Northeast Pacific; Ocean Drilling Program; ocean floors; oceanic crust; Pacific Ocean; plate convergence; plate tectonics; sea water; seismicity; subduction zones; tectonics; temperature;