Casey, John F.; Banerji, Debleena; Zarian, Pedram (2007): Leg 179 synthesis; geochemistry, stratigraphy, and structure of gabbroic rocks drilled in ODP Hole 1105A, Southwest Indian Ridge. Texas A&M University, Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX, United States, In: Casey, John F., Pettigrew, Tom, Miller, D. Jay, Araki, Eiichiro, Boissonnas, Remi, Busby, Robert, Einaudi, Florence, Gerdom, Martin, Guo, Zhong Ping, Hoskins, Hartley, Myers, Greg, Rao, Dasari Gopala, Shibata, Tsugio, Thy, Peter, Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program; scientific results; covering Leg 179 of the cruises of the drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution; Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge; Sites 1104-1107; 9 April-7 June 1998, 179, georefid:2007-044953

Oxide-free olivine gabbro and gabbro and oxide olivine gabbro and gabbro make up the bulk of the gabbroic suite recovered from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 179 Hole 1105A, which lies 1.2 km away from Hole 735B on the eastern transverse ridge of the Atlantis II Fracture Zone, Southwest Indian Ridge. The rocks recovered during Leg 179 show striking similarities to rocks recovered from the uppermost 500 m of Hole 735B during ODP Leg 118. The rocks of the Atlantis platform were likely unroofed as part of the footwall block of a large detachment fault on the inside corner of the intersection of the Southwest Indian Ridge and the Atlantis II Transform at approximately 11.5 Ma. We analyzed the lithologic, geochemical, and structural stratigraphy of the section. Downhole lithologic variation allowed division of the core into 141 lithologic intervals and 4 main units subdivided on the basis of predominance of oxide gabbroic vs. oxide-free gabbroic rocks. Detailed analyses of whole-rock chemistry, mineral chemistry, microstructure, and modes of 147 samples are presented and clearly show that the gabbroic rocks are of cumulate origin. These studies also indicate that geochemistry results correlate well with downhole magnetic susceptibility and Formation MicroScanner (FMS) resistivity measurements and images. FMS images show rocks with a well-layered structure and significant numbers of mappable layer contacts or compositional contrasts. Downhole cryptic mineral and whole-rock chemical variations depict both "normal" and inverse fine-scale variations on a scale of 10 m to <2 m with significant compositional variation over a short distance within the 143-m section sampled. A Mg# shift in whole-rock or Fo contents of olivine of as much as 20-30 units over a few meters of section is not atypical of the extreme variation in downhole plots. The products of the earliest stages of basaltic differentiation are not represented by any cumulates, as the maximum Fo content was Fo (sub 78) . Similarly, the extent of fractionation represented by the gabbroic rocks and scarce granophyres in the section is much greater than that represented in the Atlantis II basalts. The abundance of oxide gabbros is similar to that in Hole 735B, Unit IV, which is tentatively correlated as a similar unit or facies with the oxide gabbroic units of Hole 1105A. Oxide phases are generally present in the most fractionated gabbroic rocks and lacking in more primitive gabbroic rocks, and there is a definite progression of oxide abundance as, for example, the Mg# of clinopyroxene falls below 73-75. Coprecipitation of oxide at such early Mg#s cannot be modeled by perfect fractional crystallization. In situ boundary layer fractionation may offer a more plausible explanation for the complex juxtaposition of oxide- and nonoxide-bearing more primitive gabbroic rocks. The geochemical signal may, in part, be disrupted by the presence of mylonitic shear zones, which strike east-west and dip both to the south and north, but predominantly to the south away from the northern rift valley where they formed. Downhole deformation textures indicate increasing average strain and crystal-plastic deformation in units that contain oxides. Oxide- rich zones may represent zones of rheologic weakness in the cumulate section along which mylonitic and foliated gabbroic shear zones nucleate in the solid state at high temperature, or the oxide may be a symptom of former melt-rich zones and hypersolidus flow, as predicted during study of Hole 735B.
West: 57.1639 East: 57.1639 North: -32.4308 South: -32.4308
Expedition: 179
Site: 179-1105
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