Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Geldmacher, Joerg; Anderson, Louise; Beier, Christoph; Buchs, David M.; Chen Lihui; Cohen, Benjamin E.; Deschamps, Fabien; Dorais, Michael J.; Ebuna, Daniel R.; Fitton, J. Godfrey; Fulton, Patrick M.; Ganbat, Erdenesaikhan; Gee, Jeffrey S.; Hamelin, Cedric; Hanyu, Takeshi; Hoshi, Hiroyuki; Kalnins, Lara; Kell, Johnathon; Machida, Shiki; Mahoney, John J.; Moriya, Kazuyoshi; Nichols, Alexander R. I.; Pressling, Nicola J.; Rausch, Svenja; Sano, Shin-ichi; Sylvan, Jason B.; Williams, Rebecca (2011): Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 330 preliminary report; Louisville Seamount trail; implications for geodynamic mantle flow models and the geochemical evolution of primary hotspots; 13 December 2010-11 February 2011. IODP Management International, College Station, TX, United States, Preliminary Report (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program), 330, 174 pp., georefid:2011-042679

The Louisville Seamount Trail is a 4300 km long volcanic chain that has been built in the past 80 m.y. as the Pacific plate moved over a persistent mantle melting anomaly or hotspot. Because of its linear morphology and its long-lived age-progressive volcanism, Louisville is the South Pacific counterpart of the much better studied Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Trail. Together, Louisville and Hawaii are textbook examples of two primary hotspots that have been keystones in deciphering the motion of the Pacific plate relative to a set of "fixed" deep-mantle plumes. However, drilling during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 197 in the Emperor Seamounts documented a large approximately 15 degrees southward motion of the Hawaiian hotspot prior to 50 Ma. Is it possible that the Hawaiian and Louisville hotspots moved in concert and thus constitute a moving reference frame for modeling plate motion in the Pacific? Alternatively, could they have moved independently, as predicted by mantle flow models that reproduce the observed latitudinal motion for Hawaii but that predict a largely longitudinal shift for the Louisville hotspot? These two end-member geodynamic models were tested during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 330 to the Louisville Seamount Trail. In addition, existing data from dredged lavas suggest that the mantle plume source of the Louisville hotspot has been remarkably homogeneous for as long as 80 m.y. These lavas are predominantly alkali basalts and likely represent a mostly alkalic shield-building stage, which is in sharp contrast to the massive tholeiitic shield-building stage of Hawaiian volcanoes. Geochemical and isotopic data for the recovered lavas during Expedition 330 will provide insights into the magmatic evolution and melting processes of individual Louisville volcanoes, their progression from shield-building to postshield and (maybe) posterosional stages, the temperature and depth of partial melting of their mantle plume source, and the enigmatic long-lived and apparent geochemical homogeneity of the Louisville mantle source. Collectively, this will enable us to characterize the Louisville Seamount Trail as a product of one of the few global primary hotspots, to better constrain its plume-lithosphere interactions, and to further test the hypothesis that the Ontong Java Plateau formed from the plume head of the Louisville mantle plume around 120 Ma. During Expedition 330 we replicated the drilling strategy of Leg 197, the first expedition to provide compelling evidence for the motion of the Hawaiian mantle plume between 80 and 50 Ma. For that reason we targeted Louisville seamounts that have ages similar to Detroit, Suiko, Nintoku, and Koko Seamounts in the Emperor Seamount Trail. In total, five seamounts were drilled in the Louisville Seamount Trail: Canopus, Rigil, Burton, Achernar, and Hadar Guyots (old to young). By analyzing a large number of time-independent in situ lava flows (and other volcanic eruptive products) from these seamounts using modern paleomagnetic, (super 40) Ar/ (super 39) Ar geochronological, and geochemical techniques, we will be able to directly compare the paleolatitude estimates and geochemical signatures between the two longest-lived hotspot systems in the Pacific Ocean. We drilled into the summits of the five Louisville guyots and reached volcanic basement at four of these drilling targets....
West: -174.4345 East: -168.3816 North: -26.2936 South: -38.1115
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Data set link: http://sedis.iodp.org/pub-catalogue/index.php?id=10.2204/iodp.pr.330.2011 (c.f. for more detailed metadata)
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