Zhang, S. Q.; Mahoney, J. J.; Mo, X. X.; Ghazi, A. M.; Milani, L.; Crawford, A. J.; Guo, T. Y.; Zhao, Z. D. (2005): Evidence for a widespread tethyan upper mantle with Indian-Ocean-type isotopic characteristics. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, Journal of Petrology, 46 (4), 829-858, georefid:2005-075968

The mantle sources of Tethyan basalts and gabbros from Iran, Tibet, the eastern Himalayas, the seafloor off Australia, and possibly Albania were isotopically similar to those of present-day Indian Ocean ridges and hotspots. Alteration-resistant incompatible element compositions of many samples resemble those of ocean-ridge basalts, although ocean-island-like compositions are also present. Indian-Ocean-type mantle was widespread beneath the Neotethys in the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, and present beneath at least parts of the Paleotethys as long ago as the Early Carboniferous. The mantle beneath the Indian Ocean today thus may be largely "inherited" Tethyan mantle. Although some of the Tethyan rocks may have formed in intra-oceanic back-arcs or fore-arcs, contamination of the asthenosphere by material subducted shortly before magmatism cannot be a general explanation for their Indian-Ocean-ridge-like low- (super 206) Pb/ (super 204) Pb signatures. Supply of low- (super 206) Pb/ (super 204) Pb material to the asthenosphere via plumes is not supported by either present-day Indian Ocean hotspots or the ocean-island-like Tethyan rocks. Old continental lower crust or lithospheric mantle, including accreted, little-dehydrated marine sedimentary material, provides a potential low- (super 206) Pb/ (super 204) Pb reservoir only if sufficient amounts of such material can be introduced into the asthenosphere over time. Anciently subducted marine sediment is a possible low- (super 206) Pb/ (super 204) Pb source only if the large increase of U/Pb that occurs during subduction-related dewatering is somehow avoided. Fluxing of low-U/Pb fluids directly into the asthenosphere during ancient dewatering and introduction of ancient pyroxenitic lower-crustal restite or basaltic lower-arc crust into the asthenosphere provide two other means of creating Tethyan-Indian Ocean mantle, but these mechanisms, too, have potentially significant problems.
West: 117.3429 East: 117.3430 North: -15.5832 South: -15.5833
Expedition: 123
Site: 123-765
Data access:
Provider: SEDIS Publication Catalogue
Data set link: http://sedis.iodp.org/pub-catalogue/index.php?id=10.1093/petrology/egi002 (c.f. for more detailed metadata)
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