Sigman, Daniel M.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Haug, Gerald H. (2004): Polar ocean stratification in cold climate. Macmillan Journals, London, United Kingdom, Nature (London), 428 (6978), 59-63, georefid:2005-069391

The low-latitude ocean is strongly stratified by the warmth of its surface water. As a result, the great volume of the deep ocean has easiest access to the atmosphere through the polar surface ocean. In the modern polar ocean during the winter, the vertical distribution of temperature promotes overturning, with colder water over warmer, while the salinity distribution typically promotes stratification, with fresher water over saltier. Here we present deep-sea records of biogenic opal accumulation and sedimentary nitrogen isotopic composition from the Subarctic North Pacific Ocean and the Southern Ocean. These records indicate that vertical stratification increased in both northern and southern high latitudes 2.7 million years ago, when Northern Hemisphere glaciation intensified in association with global cooling during the late Pliocene epoch. (mod. journ. abst.)
West: -76.5749 East: 167.3600 North: 50.2148 South: -67.3401
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Expedition: 178
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